Chat with us, powered by LiveChat NR360 Informatic Systems in Healthcare | Economics Write
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Reflection
Write a 50-word reflection demonstrating your understanding of how effective nursing care improves patient outcomes related to the selected topic.

Nurse’s Touch – Nursing Informatics & Technology: Virtual Social Networks

EBOOK: McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Criteria
APA format

NURSING INFORMATICS
and the Foundation of
Knowledge
FOURTH EDITION

Dee McGonigle, PhD, RN, CNE, FAAN, ANEF
Director, Virtual Learning Experiences (VLE) and
Professor Graduate Program, Chamberlain College of
Nursing Member, Informatics and Technology Expert
Panel (ITEP) for the American Academy of Nursing

Kathleen Mastrian, PhD, RN
Associate Professor and Program Coordinator for
Nursing Pennsylvania State University, Shenango Sr.
Managing Editor, Online Journal of Nursing Informatics
(OJNI)

JONES & BARTLETT
LEARNING

World Headquarters
Jones & Bartlett Learning
5 Wall Street
Burlington MA 01803
978-443-5000
[email protected]
www.jblearning.com

Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are
available through most bookstores and online
booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning
directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit
our website, www.jblearning.com.

Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones &
Bartlett Learning publications are available to
corporations, professional associations, and other
qualified organizations. For details and specific
discount information, contact the special sales
department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the
above contact information or send an email to
[email protected]

Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC,
an Ascend Learning Company

All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by
this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any
form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without written permission from the copyright
owner.

The content, statements, views, and opinions herein
are the sole expression of the respective authors and
not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference
herein to any specific commercial product, process, or
service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or
otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement
or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
and such reference shall not be used for advertising or
product endorsement purposes. All trademarks
displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted
herein. Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of
Knowledge, Fourth Edition is an independent
publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or
otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or
service marks referenced in this product.

There may be images in this book that feature models;
these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or
participate in the activities represented in the images.
Any screenshots in this product are for educational and
instructive purposes only. Any individuals and
scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this

product may be real or fictitious, but are used for
instructional purposes only.

The authors, editor, and publisher have made every
effort to provide accurate information. However, they
are not responsible for errors, omissions, or for any
outcomes related to the use of the contents of this
book and take no responsibility for the use of the
products and procedures described. Treatments and
side effects described in this book may not be
applicable to all people; likewise, some people may
require a dose or experience a side effect that is not
described herein. Drugs and medical devices are
discussed that may have limited availability controlled
by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use
only in a research study or clinical trial. Research,
clinical practice, and government regulations often
change the accepted standard in this field. When
consideration is being given to use of any drug in the
clinical setting, the health care provider or reader is
responsible for determining FDA status of the drug,
reading the package insert, and reviewing prescribing
information for the most up-to-date recommendations
on dose, precautions, and contraindications, and
determining the appropriate usage for the product. This
is especially important in the case of drugs that are
new or seldom used.

12268-8
Production Credits

VP, Executive Publisher: David D. Cella
Executive Editor: Amanda Martin
Editorial Assistant: Christina Freitas
Production Manager: Carolyn Rogers Pershouse
Senior Marketing Manager: Jennifer Scherzay
Product Fulfillment Manager: Wendy Kilborn
Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services
Cover and Text Design: Michael O’Donnell
Rights & Media Specialist: Wes DeShano
Media Development Editor: Shannon Sheehan
Cover Image (Title Page, Part Opener, Chapter
Opener): © fotomak/Shutterstock
Printing and Binding: LSC Communications
Cover Printing: LSC Communications

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: McGonigle, Dee, editor. | Mastrian, Kathleen
Garver, editor.
Title: Nursing informatics and the foundation of
knowledge/[edited by]
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian.
Description: Fourth edition. | Burlington, MA: Jones &
Bartlett Learning,
[2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016043838 | ISBN 9781284121247
(pbk.)
Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Informatics | Knowledge
Classification: LCC RT50.5 | NLM WY 26.5 | DDC
651.5/04261–dc23

LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016043838

6048
Printed in the United States of America
21 20 19 18 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The Pedagogy
Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of
Knowledge, Fourth Edition drives comprehension
through a variety of strategies geared toward meeting
the learning needs of students, while also generating
enthusiasm about the topic. This interactive approach
addresses diverse learning styles, making this the ideal
text to ensure mastery of key concepts. The
pedagogical aids that appear in most chapters include
the following:

Special Acknowledgments
We want to express our sincere appreciation to the
staff at Jones & Bartlett Learning, especially Amanda,
Christina, and Carolyn, for their continued
encouragement, assistance, and support during the
writing process and publication of our book.

Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Contributors

SECTION I: BUILDING BLOCKS OF
NURSING INFORMATICS

1 Nursing Science and the Foundation of
Knowledge
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
Summary
References

2 Introduction to Information, Information
Science, and Information Systems
Kathleen Mastrian and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
Information
Information Science
Information Processing
Information Science and the Foundation of
Knowledge
Introduction to Information Systems

Summary
References

3 Computer Science and the Foundation of
Knowledge Model
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, and
June Kaminski
Introduction
The Computer as a Tool for Managing
Information and Generating Knowledge
Components
What Is the Relationship of Computer Science
to Knowledge?
How Does the Computer Support Collaboration
and Information Exchange?
Cloud Computing
Looking to the Future
Summary
Working Wisdom
Application Scenario
References

4 Introduction to Cognitive Science and
Cognitive Informatics
Kathleen Mastrian and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
Cognitive Science
Sources of Knowledge
Nature of Knowledge

How Knowledge and Wisdom Are Used in
Decision Making
Cognitive Informatics
Cognitive Informatics and Nursing Practice
What Is AI?
Summary
References

5 Ethical Applications of Informatics
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, and
Nedra Farcus
Introduction
Ethics
Bioethics
Ethical Issues and Social Media
Ethical Dilemmas and Morals
Ethical Decision Making
Theoretical Approaches to Healthcare Ethics
Applying Ethics to Informatics
Case Analysis Demonstration
New Frontiers in Ethical Issues
Summary
References

SECTION II: PERSPECTIVES ON NURSING
INFORMATICS

6 History and Evolution of Nursing
Informatics

Kathleen Mastrian and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
The Evolution of a Specialty
What Is Nursing Informatics?
The DIKW Paradigm
Capturing and Codifying the Work of Nursing
The Nurse as a Knowledge Worker
The Future
Summary
References

7 Nursing Informatics as a Specialty
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, Julie A.
Kenney, and Ida Androwich Introduction
Nursing Contributions to Healthcare
Informatics
Scope and Standards
Nursing Informatics Roles
Specialty Education and Certification
Nursing Informatics Competencies
Rewards of NI Practice
NI Organizations and Journals
The Future of Nursing Informatics
Summary
References

8 Legislative Aspects of Nursing
Informatics: HITECH and HIPAA

Kathleen M. Gialanella, Kathleen Mastrian,
and Dee McGonigle Introduction
HIPAA Came First
Overview of the HITECH Act
How a National HIT Infrastructure Is Being
Developed
How the HITECH Act Changed HIPAA
Implications for Nursing Practice
Future Regulations
Summary
References

SECTION III: NURSING INFORMATICS
ADMINISTRATIVE
APPLICATIONS: PRECARE
AND CARE SUPPORT

9 Systems Development Life Cycle: Nursing
Informatics and Organizational Decision
Making
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
Waterfall Model
Rapid Prototyping or Rapid Application
Development
Object-Oriented Systems Development
Dynamic System Development Method
Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools

Open Source Software and Free/Open Source
Software
Interoperability
Summary
References

10 Administrative Information Systems
Marianela Zytkowski, Susan Paschke,
Kathleen Mastrian, and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
Types of Healthcare Organization Information
Systems
Communication Systems
Core Business Systems
Order Entry Systems
Patient Care Support Systems
Interoperability
Aggregating Patient and Organizational Data
Department Collaboration and Exchange of
Knowledge and Information
Summary
References

11 The Human–Technology Interface
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, and
Judith A. Effken Introduction
The Human–Technology Interface
The Human–Technology Interface Problem
Improving the Human–Technology Interface

A Framework for Evaluation
Future of the Human–Technology Interface
Summary
References

12 Electronic Security
Lisa Reeves Bertin, Kathleen Mastrian, and
Dee McGonigle Introduction
Securing Network Information
Authentication of Users
Threats to Security
Security Tools
Offsite Use of Portable Devices
Summary
References

13 Workflow and Beyond Meaningful Use
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, and
Denise Hammel-Jones Introduction
Workflow Analysis Purpose
Workflow and Technology
Workflow Analysis and Informatics Practice
Informatics as a Change Agent
Measuring the Results
Future Directions
Summary
References

SECTION IV: NURSING INFORMATICS
PRACTICE APPLICATIONS:
CARE DELIVERY

14 The Electronic Health Record and
Clinical Informatics
Emily B. Barey, Kathleen Mastrian, and Dee
McGonigle
Introduction
Setting the Stage
Components of Electronic Health Records
Advantages of Electronic Health Records
Standardized Terminology and the EHR
Ownership of Electronic Health Records
Flexibility and Expandability
Accountable Care Organizations and the EHR
The Future
Summary
References

15 Informatics Tools to Promote Patient
Safety and Quality Outcomes
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
What Is a Culture of Safety?
Strategies for Developing a Safety Culture
Informatics Technologies for Patient Safety
Role of the Nurse Informaticist

Summary
References

16 Patient Engagement and Connected
Health
Kathleen Mastrian and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
Consumer Demand for Information
Health Literacy and Health Initiatives
Healthcare Organization Approaches to
Engagement
Promoting Health Literacy in School-Aged
Children
Supporting Use of the Internet for Health
Education
Future Directions for Engaging Patients
Summary
References

17 Using Informatics to Promote
Community/Population Health
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian,
Margaret Ross Kraft, and Ida Androwich
Introduction
Core Public Health Functions
Community Health Risk Assessment: Tools for
Acquiring Knowledge
Processing Knowledge and Information to
Support Epidemiology and Monitoring Disease

Outbreaks
Applying Knowledge to Health Disaster
Planning and Preparation
Informatics Tools to Support Communication
and Dissemination
Using Feedback to Improve Responses and
Promote Readiness
Summary
References

18 Telenursing and Remote Access
Telehealth
Original contribution by Audrey Kinsella,
Kathleen Albright, Sheldon Prial, and
Schuyler F. Hoss; revised by Kathleen
Mastrian and Dee McGonigle Introduction
The Foundation of Knowledge Model and Home
Telehealth
Nursing Aspects of Telehealth
History of Telehealth
Driving Forces for Telehealth
Telehealth Care
Telenursing
Telehealth Patient Populations
Tools of Home Telehealth
Home Telehealth Software
Home Telehealth Practice and Protocols
Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Issues

The Patient’s Role in Telehealth
Telehealth Research
Evolving Telehealth Models
Parting Thoughts for the Future and a View
Toward What the Future Holds
Summary
References

SECTION V: EDUCATION APPLICATIONS OF
NURSING INFORMATICS

19 Nursing Informatics and Nursing
Education
Heather E. McKinney, Sylvia DeSantis,
Kathleen Mastrian, and Dee McGonigle
Introduction: Nursing Education and the
Foundation of Knowledge Model
Knowledge Acquisition and Sharing
Evolution of Learning Management Systems
Delivery Modalities
Technology Tools Supporting Education
Internet-Based Tools
Promoting Active and Collaborative Learning
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing
Exploring Information Fair Use and Copyright
Restrictions
The Future
Summary
References

20 Simulation, Game Mechanics, and Virtual
Worlds in Nursing Education
Dee McGonigle, Kathleen Mastrian, Brett
Bixler, and Nickolaus Miehl Introduction
Simulation in Nursing Informatics Education
Nursing Informatics Competencies in Nursing
Education
A Case for Simulation in Nursing Informatics
Education and Nursing Education
Incorporating EHRs into the Learning
Environment
Challenges and Opportunities
The Future of Simulation in Nursing
Informatics Education
Game Mechanics and Virtual World Simulation
for Nursing Education
Game Mechanics and Educational Games
Virtual Worlds in Education
Choosing Among Simulations, Educational
Games, and Virtual Worlds
The Future of Simulations, Games, and Virtual
Worlds in Nursing Education
Summary
References

SECTION VI: RESEARCH APPLICATIONS OF
NURSING INFORMATICS

21 Nursing Research: Data Collection,
Processing, and Analysis
Heather E. McKinney, Sylvia DeSantis,
Kathleen Mastrian, and Dee McGonigle
Introduction: Nursing Research and the
Foundation of Knowledge Model
Knowledge Generation Through Nursing
Research
Acquiring Previously Gained Knowledge
Through Internet and Library Holdings
Fair Use of Information and Sharing
Informatics Tools for Collecting Data and
Storage of Information
Tools for Processing Data and Data Analysis
The Future
Summary
References

22 Data Mining as a Research Tool
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction: Big Data, Data Mining, and
Knowledge Discovery
KDD and Research
Data Mining Concepts
Data Mining Techniques
Data Mining Models
Benefits of KDD
Data Mining and Electronic Health Records

Ethics of Data Mining
Summary
References

23 Translational Research: Generating
Evidence for Practice
Jennifer Bredemeyer, Ida Androwich, Dee
McGonigle, and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
Clarification of Terms
History of Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence
Bridging the Gap Between Research and
Practice
Barriers to and Facilitators of Evidence-Based
Practice
The Role of Informatics
Developing EBP Guidelines
Meta-Analysis and Generation of Knowledge
The Future
Summary
References

24 Bioinformatics, Biomedical Informatics,
and Computational Biology
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
Bioinformatics, Biomedical Informatics, and
Computational Biology Defined

Why Are Bioinformatics and Biomedical
Informatics So Important?
What Does the Future Hold?
Summary
References

SECTION VII: IMAGINING THE FUTURE OF
NURSING INFORMATICS

25 The Art of Caring in Technology-Laden
Environments
Kathleen Mastrian and Dee McGonigle
Introduction
Caring Theories
Presence
Strategies for Enhancing Caring Presence
Reflective Practice
Summary
References

26 Nursing Informatics and the Foundation
of Knowledge
Dee McGonigle and Kathleen Mastrian
Introduction
Foundation of Knowledge Revisited
The Nature of Knowledge
Knowledge Use in Practice
Characteristics of Knowledge Workers
Knowledge Management in Organizations

Managing Knowledge Across Disciplines
The Learning Healthcare System
Summary
References

Abbreviations

Glossary

Index

Preface
The idea for this text originated with the development
of nursing informatics (NI) classes, the publication of
articles related to technology-based education, and the
creation of the Online Journal of Nursing Informatics
(OJNI), which Dee McGonigle cofounded with Renee
Eggers. Like most nurse informaticists, we fell into the
specialty; our love affair with technology and gadgets
and our willingness to be the first to try new things
helped to hook us into the specialty of informatics. The
rapid evolution of technology and its transformation of
the ways of nursing prompted us to try to capture the
essence of NI in a text.

As we were developing the first edition, we realized
that we could not possibly know all there is to know
about informatics and the way in which it supports
nursing practice, education, administration, and
research. We also knew that our faculty roles
constrained our opportunities for exposure to changes
in this rapidly evolving field. Therefore, we developed a
tentative outline and a working model of the theoretical
framework for the text and invited participation from
informatics experts and specialists around the world.
We were pleased with the enthusiastic responses we
received from some of those invited contributors and a

few volunteers who heard about the text and asked to
participate in their particular area of expertise.

In the second edition, we invited the original
contributors to revise and update their chapters. Not
everyone chose to participate in the second edition, so
we revised several of the chapters using the original
work as a springboard. The revisions to the text were
guided by the contributors’ growing informatics
expertise and the reviews provided by textbook
adopters. In the revisions, we sought to do the
following:

Expand the audience focus to include nursing
students from BS through DNP programs as well as
nurses thrust into informatics roles in clinical
agencies.
Include, whenever possible, an attention-grabbing
case scenario as an introduction or an illustrative
case scenario demonstrating why the topic is
important.
Include important research findings related to the
topic. Many chapters have research briefs
presented in text boxes to encourage the reader to
access current research.
Focus on cutting-edge innovations, meaningful use,
and patient safety as appropriate to each topic.
Include a paragraph describing what the future
holds for each topic.

New chapters that were added to the second edition
included those focusing on technology and patient
safety, system development life cycle, workflow
analysis, gaming, simulation, and bioinformatics.

In the third edition, we reviewed and updated all of the
chapters, reordered some chapters for better content
flow, eliminated duplicated content, split the education
and research content into two sections, integrated
social media content, and added two new chapters:
Data Mining as a Research Tool and The Art of Caring
in Technology-Laden Environments.

In this fourth edition, we reviewed and updated all of
the chapters based on technological advancements
and changes to the healthcare arena, including
reimbursement mechanisms for services. We have
pared this edition down to 26 chapters from the
previous edition’s 29; one chapter each was deleted
from Sections II, V, and VII. Section I includes
updates to the same five chapters on the building
blocks of nursing informatics, with extensive changes
to Chapter 3, Computer Science and the Foundation of
Knowledge Model. To improve flow, we combined
content. In Section II, the previous four chapters were
narrowed to three. New Chapters 6, History and
Evolution of Nursing Informatics and 7, Nursing
Informatics as a Specialty, were developed and
appropriate material from previous Chapters 6, 7, and
8 were assimilated. This section ends with an updated

Chapter 8, Legislative Aspects of Nursing Informatics:
HITECH and HIPAA (formerly Chapter 9). Section III
contains the same five chapters, although all were
updated and Chapter 13, Workflow and Beyond
Meaningful Use (formerly Chapter 14) now reflects the
payment models and reimbursement issues that we
are adjusting to after meaningful use has gone away.
Section IV contains the same five chapters with
updated content and some name changes to reflect the
current status of informatics and healthcare. Chapter
15 was renamed to Informatics Tools to Promote
Patient Safety and Quality Outcomes, and Chapter 16
has been changed to Patient Engagement and
Connected Health. Section V went from three chapters
to two chapters: Chapter 19 (formerly Chapter 20)
was updated, while the new Chapter 20, Simulation,
Game Mechanics, and Virtual Worlds in Nursing
Education, had content from former Chapters 21 and
22 integrated during its development. Section VI was
renamed to Research Applications of Nursing
Informatics. It still has the same four chapters, which
have been updated, but the first chapter in this section,
21, was renamed to reflect nursing research; its new
name is Nursing Research: Data Collection,
Processing, and Analysis. Section VII went from three
chapters to two chapters. Because emerging
technologies are discussed throughout the text, the
chapter focusing specifically on that was removed. The
two chapters that remain are Chapter 25, The Art of
Caring in Technology-Laden Environments, and the

new Chapter 26, Nursing Informatics and Knowledge
Management. In addition, the ancillary materials have
been updated and enhanced to include competency-
based self-assessments and mapping the content to
the current NI standards.

We believe that this text provides a comprehensive
elucidation of this exciting field. Its theoretical
underpinning is the Foundation of Knowledge model.
This model is introduced in its entirety in the first
chapter (Nursing Science and the Foundation of
Knowledge), which discusses nursing science and its
relationship to NI. We believe that humans are organic
information systems that are constantly acquiring,
processing, and generating information or knowledge
in both their professional and personal lives. It is their
high degree of knowledge that characterizes humans
as extremely intelligent, organic machines. Individuals
have the ability to manage knowledge—an ability that
is learned and honed from birth. We make our way
through life interacting with our environment and being
inundated with information and knowledge. We
experience our environment and learn by acquiring,
processing, generating, and disseminating knowledge.
As we interact in our environment, we acquire
knowledge that we must process. This processing
effort causes us to redefine and restructure our
knowledge base and generate new knowledge. We
then share (disseminate) this new knowledge and
receive feedback from others. The dissemination and

feedback initiate this cycle of knowledge over again, as
we acquire, process, generate, and disseminate the
knowledge gained from sharing and re-exploring our
own knowledge base. As others respond to our
knowledge dissemination and we acquire new
knowledge, we engage in rethinking and reflecting on
our knowledge, processing, generating, and then
disseminating anew.

The purpose of this text is to provide a set of practical
and powerful tools to ensure that the reader gains an
understanding of NI and moves from information
through knowledge to wisdom. Defining the demands
of nurses and providing tools to help them survive and
succeed in the Knowledge Era remains a major
challenge. Exposing nursing students and nurses to
the principles and tools used in NI helps to prepare
them to meet the challenge of practicing nursing in the
Knowledge Era while striving to improve patient care at
all levels.

The text provides a comprehensive framework that
embraces knowledge so that readers can develop their
knowledge repositories and the wisdom necessary to
act on and apply that knowledge. The text is divided
into seven sections.

Section I, Building Blocks of Nursing Informatics,
covers the building blocks of NI: nursing science,
information science, computer science, cognitive

science, and the ethical management of
information.
Section II, Perspectives on Nursing Informatics,
provides readers with a look at various viewpoints
on NI and NI practice as described by experts in the
field.
Section III, Nursing Informatics Administrative
Applications: Precare and Care Support, covers
important functions of administrative applications of
NI.
Section IV, Nursing Informatics Practice
Applications: Care Delivery, covers healthcare
delivery applications including electronic health
records (EHRs), clinical information systems,
telehealth, patient safety, patient and community
education, and care management.
Section V, Education Applications of Nursing
Informatics, presents subject matter on how
informatics supports nursing education.
Section VI, Research Applications of Nursing
Informatics, covers informatics tools to support
nursing research, including data mining and
bioinformatics.
Section VII, Imagining the Future of Nursing
Informatics, focuses on the future of NI,
emphasizes the need to preserve caring functions
in technology-laden environments, and reviews the
relationship of nursing informatics to organizational
knowledge management.

The introduction to each section explains the
relationship between the content of that section and the
Foundation of Knowledge model. This text places the
material within the context of knowledge acquisition,
processing, generation, and dissemination. It serves
both nursing students (BS to DNP/PhD) and
professionals who need to understand, use, and
evaluate NI knowledge. As nursing professors, our
major responsibility is to prepare the practitioners and
leaders in the field. Because NI permeates the entire
scope of nursing (practice, administration, education,
and research), nursing education curricula must
include NI. Our primary objective is to develop the most
comprehensive and user-friendly NI text on the market
to prepare nurses for current and future practice
challenges. In particular, this text provides a solid
groundwork from which to integrate NI into practice,
education, administration, and research.

Goals of this text are as follows:

Impart core NI principles that should be familiar to
every nurse and nursing student
Help the reader understand knowledge and how it
is acquired, processed, generated, and
disseminated
Explore the changing role of NI professionals
Demonstrate the value of the NI discipline as an
attractive field of specialization

Meeting these goals will help nurses and nursing
students understand and use fundamental NI principles
so that they efficiently and effectively function as
current and future nursing professionals to enhance the
nursing profession and improve the quality of health
care. The overall vision, framework, and pedagogy of
this text offer benefits to readers by highlighting
established principles while drawing out new ones that
continue to emerge as nursing and technology evolve.

Acknowledgments
We are deeply grateful to the contributors who
provided this text with a richness and diversity of
content that we could not have captured alone. Joan
Humphrey provided social media content integrated
throughout the text. We especially wish to
acknowledge the superior work of Alicia Mastrian,
graphic designer of the Foundation of Knowledge
model, which serves as the theoretical framework on
which this text is anchored. We could never have
completed this project without the dedicated and
patient efforts of the Jones & Bartlett Learning staff,
especially Amanda Martin, Emma Huggard, and
Christina Freitas, all of whom fielded our questions and
concerns in a very professional, respectful, and timely
manner.

Dee acknowledges the undying love, support, patience,
and continued encouragement of her best friend and
husband, Craig, and her son, Craig, who has made her
so very proud. She sincerely thanks her cousins
Camille, Glenn, Mary Jane, and Sonny, and her dear
friends for their support and encouragement, especially
Renee.

Kathy acknowledges the loving support of her family:
husband Chip; children Ben and Alicia; sisters Carol
and Sue; and parents Robert and Rosalie Garver. She
dedicates her work on this edition to her dad, Robert,
who died September 17, 2016. Kathy also
acknowledges those friends who understand the
importance of validation, especially Katie, Lisa, Kathy,
Maureen, Anne, Barbara, and Sally.

Authors’ Note
This text provides an overview of nursing informatics
from the perspective of diverse experts in the field, with
a focus on nursing informatics and the Foundation of
Knowledge model. We want our readers and students
to focus on the relationship of knowledge to informatics
and to embrace and maintain the caring functions of
nursing—messages all too often lost in the romance
with technology. We hope you enjoy the text!

Contributors
Ida Androwich, PhD, RN, BC, FAAN
Loyola University Chicago
School of Nursing
Maywood, IL

Emily Barey, MSN, RN
Director of Nursing Informatics
Epic Systems Corporation
Madison, WI

Lisa Reeves Bertin, BS, EMBA
Pennsylvania State University
Sharon, PA

Brett Bixler, PhD
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA

error: Content is protected !!