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Blog Topic – Week 4
General Psychology
ch3-6

Which Type of Memory Do You Use Most?
In the chapter on remembering and forgetting, the author cites several different types of information that reside in memory.  Episodic memories are composed of particular events that happen to someone personally.  Semantic memories are essentially “general knowledge.”  Procedural memory is our knowledge about how to do things, like ride a bike.
Think about these three types of memory and how you use each on an everyday basis.  List a few examples of each, taken from your daily life.  Which of these types of memory do you think is the most important?  the least important?  Explain.

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Psychology
James S. Nairne

Purdue University

th edition6

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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© 2014, 2009 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

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Library of Congress Control Number: 2012947702

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Psychology, 6th edition
James S. Nairne

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● To Beverly H. Nairne

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James S. Nairne is the Reece McGee Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences

at Purdue University. Recognized internationally as both a scholar and a teacher, he has

received numerous teaching honors at Purdue, including the Liberal Arts Excellence in

Education Award and the Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award. In 2001, he was

named a Fellow of the Purdue Teaching Academy, and in 2004 he was given a permanent

position in Purdue’s Book of Great Teachers. He is also former director of the Honors Pro-

gram for the College of Liberal Arts. Professor Nairne received his Ph.D. in Human Mem-

ory and Cognition from Yale University.

About the Author

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 • An Introduction to Psychology 2
2 • The Tools of Psychological Research 26
3 • Biological Processes 56
4 • Human Development 90
5 • Sensation and Perception 130
6 • Consciousness 170
7 • Learning From Experience 204
8 • Memory 236
9 • Language and Thought 270
1 0 • Intelligence 304
1 1 • Motivation and Emotion 336
1 2 • Personality 372
1 3 • Social Psychology 402
1 4 • Psychological Disorders 442
1 5 • Therapy 474
1 6 • Stress and Health 506

Appendix A–1

Glossary G–1

References R–1

Indexes I–1

● Brief Contents

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

● Contents

1 • An Introduction to
Psychology 2
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is the Function of Psychology? 3

Defining and Describing Psychology 5
Learning Goals 5
What Psychologists Do 6

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself! 9

Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1 9

Tracing the Development of
Psychology: A Brief History 10
Learning Goals 10
Mind and Body: Are They the Same? 10
Nature and Nurture: Where Does

Knowledge Come From? 11
The First Schools: Psychology as Science 12
Freud and the Humanists: The Influence

of the Clinic 15
The First Women in Psychology 16
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.2 17

Identifying the Focus of
Modern Psychology 18
Learning Goals 18
Cognitive Factors 18
Biological Factors 19
Evolutionary Psychology 20
Cultural Factors 21
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.3 22

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
The Function of Psychology 23
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 24
Terms to Remember 25
Media Resources 25

2 • The Tools of Psychological
Research 26
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Unlock the Secrets of
Behavior and Mind? 27

Observing Behavior:
Descriptive Research 30
Learning Goals 30
Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life 31
Case Studies: Focusing on the Individual 32
Surveys: Focusing on the Group 32
Psychological Tests: Assessing

Individual Differences 34
Statistics: Summarizing and Interpreting the Data 35

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

How Should a Teacher Grade? 37

Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.1 38

Predicting Behavior:
Correlational Research 38
Learning Goals 38
Correlational Research 39
Correlations and Causality 41
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.2 42

Explaining Behavior:
Experimental Research 42
Learning Goals 42
Independent and Dependent Variables 43
Experimental Control 44
Expectancies and Biases in Experimental Research 46
Generalizing Experimental Conclusions 48
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.3 48

The Ethics of Research: Human and
Animal Guidelines 49
Learning Goals 49
Informed Consent 49

vii

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viii | Contents

Debriefing and Confidentiality 50
The Ethics of Animal Research 50
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.4 52

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Unlocking the Secrets of Mind and Behavior 53
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 54
Terms to Remember 55
Media Resources 55

3 • Biological Processes 56
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Biological Processes For? 57

Communicating Internally: Connecting
World and Brain 58
Learning Goals 58
The Anatomy of Neurons 60
Neural Transmission:

The Electrochemical Message 60
The Communication Network 65
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.1 65

Initiating Behavior: A Division of Labor 66
Learning Goals 66
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 66
How We Determine Brain Function 68
Brain Structures and Their Functions 71

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Mirror Neurons: Solving the “Other Mind Problem” 77

The Divided Brain 77
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.2 79

Regulating Growth and Internal Functions:
Extended Communication 80
Learning Goals 80
The Endocrine System 80
Do Men and Woman Have Different Brains? 81
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.3 82

Adapting and Transmitting the Genetic Code 83
Learning Goals 83
Natural Selection and Adaptations 83
Genetic Principles 84
Genes and Behavior 85
Recall–Monitor–Recall 3.4 86

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Biological Processes Are For 87
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 87
Terms to Remember 88
Media Resources 89

4 • Human Development 90
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Development For? 91

Developing Physically 92
Learning Goals 92
The Stages of Prenatal Development 92
Growth During Infancy 95
From Crawling to Walking 96
From Toddlerhood to Adolescence 97
Becoming an Adult 97
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.1 99

Developing Intellectually 100
Learning Goals 100
The Tools of Investigation 100
The Growing Perceptual World 102
Piaget and the Development of Thought 104
The Sensorimotor Period: Birth to Two Years 105
The Preoperational Period: Two to Seven Years 105
The Concrete Operational Period: Seven to Eleven

Years 106
The Formal Operational Period: Eleven to

Adulthood 107
Challenges to Piaget’s Theory 108
Core Knowledge 110
Moral Development: Learning Right

From Wrong 111
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.2 113

Developing Socially and Personally 114
Learning Goals 114
Forming Bonds With Others 114
The Origins of Attachment 114
Types of Attachment 116
Do Early Attachments Matter Later in Life? 117
Day Care: What Are the Long-Term Effects? 118

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Choosing a Day-Care Center 120

Forming a Personal Identity: Erikson’s Crises of
Development 120

Gender-Role Development 123
Growing Old 124
Death and Dying 125
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.3 127

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Development Is For 127
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 128
Terms to Remember 129
Media Resources 129

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | ix

5 • Sensation and
Perception 130
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Build the World of Experience? 131

Vision: The World of Color and Form 133
Learning Goals 133
Translating the Message 133
Identifying the Message Components 138
Producing Stable Interpretations: Visual

Perception 142

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Creating Illusions Of Depth 147

Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.1 151

Hearing: Identifying and Localizing Sounds 152
Learning Goals 152
Translating the Message 152
Identifying the Message Components 154
Producing Stable Interpretations: Auditory

Perception 155
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.2 156

The Skin and Body Senses: From Touch to
Movement 157
Learning Goals 157
Touch 157
Temperature 158
Experiencing Pain 158
The Kinesthetic Sense 159
The Vestibular Sense 160
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.3 160

The Chemical Senses: Smell and
Taste 161
Learning Goals 161
Smell 161
Taste 162
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.4 163

From the Physical to the Psychological 163
Learning Goals 163
Stimulus Detection 164
Difference Thresholds 165
Sensory Adaptation 166
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.5 166

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How We Build the World of Experience 166
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 167
Terms to Remember 169
Media Resources 169

6 • Consciousness 170
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What is Consciousness For? 171

Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning:
Attention 173
Learning Goals 173
Experiments on Attention: Dichotic Listening 173
Processing Without Attention: Automaticity 175

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Cell Phones And Driving 176

Disorders of Attention 177
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.1 179

Sleeping and Dreaming 179
Learning Goals 179
Biological Rhythms 180
The Characteristics of Sleep 180
The Function of Sleep 184
The Function of REM and Dreaming 185
Disorders of Sleep 187
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.2 189

Altering Awareness: Psychoactive
Drugs 190
Learning Goals 190
Drug Actions and Effects 190
Categories of Psychoactive Drugs 191
Psychological Factors 194
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.3 195

Altering Awareness: Induced States 195
Learning Goals 195
The Phenomenon of Hypnosis 196
Explaining Hypnosis 198
Meditation 199
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.4 200

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Consciousness Is For 200

cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 201
Terms to Remember 203
Media Resources 203

7 • Learning From
Experience 204
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Learn From Experience? 205

Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring 206

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

x | Contents

Learning Goal 206
Habituation and Sensitization 206
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.1 208

Learning What Events Signal: Classical
Conditioning 209
Learning Goals 209
The Terminology of Classical Conditioning 209
Forming the CS–US Connection 210
Conditioned Responding: Why Does

It Develop? 211
Second-Order Conditioning 212

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Taste Aversions 213

Stimulus Generalization 214
Stimulus Discrimination 215
An Application: Drug Tolerance 215
Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals

the US 216
Conditioned Inhibition: Signaling the Absence

of the US 217
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.2 219

Learning About the Consequences of
Behavior: Operant Conditioning 219
Learning Goals 219
The Law of Effect 220
The Discriminative Stimulus: Knowing When to

Respond 221
The Nature of Reinforcement 222
Punishment: Lowering the Likelihood of a

Response 223
Schedules of Reinforcement 224
Shaping: Acquiring Complex Behaviors 227
Biological Constraints on Learning 227
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.3 228

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Superstitious Behavior 229

Learning From Others: Observational
Learning 229
Learning Goals 229
Modeling: Learning From Others 230
Practical Considerations 231
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.4 232

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Learning From Experience 232
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 233
Terms to Remember 234
Media Resources 235

8 • Memory 236
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Memory For? 237

Remembering Over the Short Term 239
Learning Goals 239
Sensory Memory: The Icon and the Echo 239
Short-Term Memory: Prolonging the Present 241
The Working Memory Model 245
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.1 246

Storing Information for the Long Term 246
Learning Goals 246
What Is Stored in Long-Term Memory? 246
Elaboration: Connecting Material to Existing

Knowledge 247
Mnemonic Devices 250
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.2 253

Recovering Information From Cues 253
Learning Goals 253
The Importance of Retrieval Cues 253
Reconstructive Remembering 256

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Self-Testing “Appropriately” for Exams 257

Remembering Without Awareness:
Implicit Memory 259

Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.3 260

Updating Memory 261
Learning Goals 261
How Quickly Do We Forget? 261
Why Do We Forget? 262
Motivated Forgetting 263
The Neuroscience of Forgetting 265
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.4 267

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN 
What Memory Is For 267
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 268
Terms to Remember 269
Media Resources 269

9 • Language and Thought 270
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Cognitive Processes For? 271

Communicating With Others 273
Learning Goals 273

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | xi

The Structure of Language 273
Language Comprehension 276
Language Development 277
Language in Nonhuman Species 279
Is Language an Adaptation? 281
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.1 282

Classifying and Categorizing 282
Learning Goals 282
Defining Category Membership 283
Do People Store Category Prototypes? 284
The Hierarchical Structure of Categories 286
Where Do Categories Come From? 286
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.2 287

Solving Problems 287
Learning Goals 287
Representing Problem Information 288
Developing Problem-Solving Strategies 290
Reaching the Aha! Moment: Insight 292

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Having Difficulty? Take a Break! 293

Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.3 293

Making Decisions 294
Learning Goals 294
Framing Decision Alternatives 294
Decision-Making Biases 295
Decision-Making Heuristics 296
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.4 299

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Cognitive Processes Are For 300
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 301
Terms to Remember 302
Media Resources 303

10 • Intelligence 304
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Study Intelligence? 305

Conceptualizing Intelligence 307
Learning Goals 307
Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind 307
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 310
Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Case Study

Approach 310
Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg’s Triarchic

Theory 312
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.1 313

Measuring Individual Differences 314
Learning Goals 314
The Components of a Good Test 314
IQ: The Intelligence Quotient 316
Extremes of Intelligence 318
The Validity of Intelligence Testing 319
Individual Differences Related to Intelligence 321

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Can Mozart’s Music Make You Smarter? 323

Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.2 324

Discovering the Sources of Intelligence 324
Learning Goals 324
The Stability of IQ 325
Nature: The Genetic Argument 327
Nurture: The Environmental Argument 329
The Interaction of Nature and Nurture 331
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.3 333

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Psychologists Study Intelligence 333
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 334
Terms to Remember 335
Media Resources 335

11 • Motivation and Emotion 336
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Motivation and Emotion For? 337

Activating Behavior 339
Learning Goals 339
Internal Factors: Instincts and Drive 339
External Factors: Incentive Motivation 340
Achievement Motivation 341
Intrinsic Motivation 342
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 343
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.1 344

Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger 
and Eating 345
Learning Goals 345
Internal Factors Controlling Hunger 345
External Factors Controlling Hunger 347

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Dietary Variety and Weight Gain 348

Regulating Body Weight 348
Eating Disorders 350
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.2 352

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xii | Contents

Meeting Biological Needs:
Sexual Behavior 352
Learning Goals 352
The Sexual Response Cycle 353
Internal Factors 354
External Factors 355
Mate Selection 356
Sexual Orientation 357
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.3 358

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion 359
Learning Goals 359
Are There Basic Emotions? 359
The Emotional Experience: Arousal 362
The Emotional Experience: Subjective

Reactions 362
Theories of Emotion: Body to Mind 365
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.4 368

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Motivation and Emotion Are For 369
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 370
Terms to Remember 371
Media Resources 371

12 • Personality 372
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Personality For? 373

Conceptualizing and Measuring
Personality 374
Learning Goals 374
The Factor Analytic Approach 375
Allport’s Trait Theory 377
Personality Tests 378
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.1 381

Determining How Personality Develops 381
Learning Goals 381
The Psychodynamic Approach of Freud 381
Humanistic Approaches to Personality 386
Social–Cognitive Approaches to Personality 389
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.2 393

Resolving the Person–Situation Debate 394
Learning Goals 394
The Person–Situation Debate 394

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

The Value of Self-Monitoring 396

Genetic Factors in Personality 396

Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.3 399

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Personality Is For 399
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 400
Terms to Remember 401
Media Resources 401

13 • Social Psychology 402
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Social Processes For? 403

Interpreting the Behavior of Others:
Social Cognition 404
Learning Goals 404
Person Perception: How Do We Form

Impressions of Others? 404

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Combating Prejudice 409

Attribution Theory: Attributing Causes to
Behavior 409

Attitudes and Attitude Change 413
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.1 417

Behaving in the Presence of Others:
Social Influence 418
Learning Goals 418
Social Facilitation and Interference 418
Social Influences on Altruism:

The Bystander Effect 419
The Power of the Group 421
Group Decision Making 424
The Power of Authority: Obedience 426
The Role of Culture 429
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.2 430

Establishing Relations With Others 431
Learning Goals 431
What Makes a Face Attractive? 431
Determinants of Liking and Loving 433
The Psychology of Romantic Love 436
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.3 438

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Social Processes Are For 438
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 439
Terms to Remember 440
Media Resources 441

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | xiii

14 • Psychological Disorders 442
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Psychological Disorders? 443

Conceptualizing Abnormality:
What Is Abnormal Behavior? 445
Learning Goals 445
Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior 445
The Concept of Insanity 447
The Medical Model: Conceptualizing

Abnormality as a Disease 448
Problems Associated With Labeling 448
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.1 450

Classifying Psychological Disorders 450
Learning Goals 450
Anxiety Disorders: Fear and Apprehension 452
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 454
Somatic Symptom Disorders: Body and Mind 455
Dissociative Disorders: Disruptions

of Identity or Awareness 456
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 457

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Suicide Prevention 460

Schizophrenia: Faulty Thought Processes 460
Personality Disorders 462
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.2 463

Understanding Psychological Disorders: Biological,
Cognitive, or Environmental? 463
Learning Goals 463
Biological Factors: Is It in the Brain or Genes? 464
Cognitive Factors: Is It Maladaptive

Thoughts and Beliefs? 467
Environmental Factors: Is It Learned

Through Experience? 468
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.3 470

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Psychological Disorders Are 471
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 472
Terms to Remember 473
Media Resources 473

15 • Therapy 474
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Psychotherapy For? 475

Treating the Body:
Biomedical Therapies 477

Learning Goals 477
Drug Therapies 477
Electroconvulsive Therapy 480
Psychosurgery 481
Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.1 482

Treating the Mind:
Insight Therapies …

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Psychology
James S. Nairne

Purdue University

th edition6

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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© 2014, 2009 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

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Psychology, 6th edition
James S. Nairne

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● To Beverly H. Nairne

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James S. Nairne is the Reece McGee Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences

at Purdue University. Recognized internationally as both a scholar and a teacher, he has

received numerous teaching honors at Purdue, including the Liberal Arts Excellence in

Education Award and the Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award. In 2001, he was

named a Fellow of the Purdue Teaching Academy, and in 2004 he was given a permanent

position in Purdue’s Book of Great Teachers. He is also former director of the Honors Pro-

gram for the College of Liberal Arts. Professor Nairne received his Ph.D. in Human Mem-

ory and Cognition from Yale University.

About the Author

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

1 • An Introduction to Psychology 2
2 • The Tools of Psychological Research 26
3 • Biological Processes 56
4 • Human Development 90
5 • Sensation and Perception 130
6 • Consciousness 170
7 • Learning From Experience 204
8 • Memory 236
9 • Language and Thought 270
1 0 • Intelligence 304
1 1 • Motivation and Emotion 336
1 2 • Personality 372
1 3 • Social Psychology 402
1 4 • Psychological Disorders 442
1 5 • Therapy 474
1 6 • Stress and Health 506

Appendix A–1

Glossary G–1

References R–1

Indexes I–1

● Brief Contents

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

● Contents

1 • An Introduction to
Psychology 2
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is the Function of Psychology? 3

Defining and Describing Psychology 5
Learning Goals 5
What Psychologists Do 6

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself! 9

Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1 9

Tracing the Development of
Psychology: A Brief History 10
Learning Goals 10
Mind and Body: Are They the Same? 10
Nature and Nurture: Where Does

Knowledge Come From? 11
The First Schools: Psychology as Science 12
Freud and the Humanists: The Influence

of the Clinic 15
The First Women in Psychology 16
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.2 17

Identifying the Focus of
Modern Psychology 18
Learning Goals 18
Cognitive Factors 18
Biological Factors 19
Evolutionary Psychology 20
Cultural Factors 21
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.3 22

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
The Function of Psychology 23
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 24
Terms to Remember 25
Media Resources 25

2 • The Tools of Psychological
Research 26
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Unlock the Secrets of
Behavior and Mind? 27

Observing Behavior:
Descriptive Research 30
Learning Goals 30
Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life 31
Case Studies: Focusing on the Individual 32
Surveys: Focusing on the Group 32
Psychological Tests: Assessing

Individual Differences 34
Statistics: Summarizing and Interpreting the Data 35

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

How Should a Teacher Grade? 37

Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.1 38

Predicting Behavior:
Correlational Research 38
Learning Goals 38
Correlational Research 39
Correlations and Causality 41
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.2 42

Explaining Behavior:
Experimental Research 42
Learning Goals 42
Independent and Dependent Variables 43
Experimental Control 44
Expectancies and Biases in Experimental Research 46
Generalizing Experimental Conclusions 48
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.3 48

The Ethics of Research: Human and
Animal Guidelines 49
Learning Goals 49
Informed Consent 49

vii

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viii | Contents

Debriefing and Confidentiality 50
The Ethics of Animal Research 50
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.4 52

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Unlocking the Secrets of Mind and Behavior 53
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 54
Terms to Remember 55
Media Resources 55

3 • Biological Processes 56
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Biological Processes For? 57

Communicating Internally: Connecting
World and Brain 58
Learning Goals 58
The Anatomy of Neurons 60
Neural Transmission:

The Electrochemical Message 60
The Communication Network 65
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.1 65

Initiating Behavior: A Division of Labor 66
Learning Goals 66
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 66
How We Determine Brain Function 68
Brain Structures and Their Functions 71

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Mirror Neurons: Solving the “Other Mind Problem” 77

The Divided Brain 77
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.2 79

Regulating Growth and Internal Functions:
Extended Communication 80
Learning Goals 80
The Endocrine System 80
Do Men and Woman Have Different Brains? 81
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.3 82

Adapting and Transmitting the Genetic Code 83
Learning Goals 83
Natural Selection and Adaptations 83
Genetic Principles 84
Genes and Behavior 85
Recall–Monitor–Recall 3.4 86

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Biological Processes Are For 87
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 87
Terms to Remember 88
Media Resources 89

4 • Human Development 90
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Development For? 91

Developing Physically 92
Learning Goals 92
The Stages of Prenatal Development 92
Growth During Infancy 95
From Crawling to Walking 96
From Toddlerhood to Adolescence 97
Becoming an Adult 97
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.1 99

Developing Intellectually 100
Learning Goals 100
The Tools of Investigation 100
The Growing Perceptual World 102
Piaget and the Development of Thought 104
The Sensorimotor Period: Birth to Two Years 105
The Preoperational Period: Two to Seven Years 105
The Concrete Operational Period: Seven to Eleven

Years 106
The Formal Operational Period: Eleven to

Adulthood 107
Challenges to Piaget’s Theory 108
Core Knowledge 110
Moral Development: Learning Right

From Wrong 111
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.2 113

Developing Socially and Personally 114
Learning Goals 114
Forming Bonds With Others 114
The Origins of Attachment 114
Types of Attachment 116
Do Early Attachments Matter Later in Life? 117
Day Care: What Are the Long-Term Effects? 118

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Choosing a Day-Care Center 120

Forming a Personal Identity: Erikson’s Crises of
Development 120

Gender-Role Development 123
Growing Old 124
Death and Dying 125
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.3 127

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Development Is For 127
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 128
Terms to Remember 129
Media Resources 129

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | ix

5 • Sensation and
Perception 130
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Build the World of Experience? 131

Vision: The World of Color and Form 133
Learning Goals 133
Translating the Message 133
Identifying the Message Components 138
Producing Stable Interpretations: Visual

Perception 142

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Creating Illusions Of Depth 147

Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.1 151

Hearing: Identifying and Localizing Sounds 152
Learning Goals 152
Translating the Message 152
Identifying the Message Components 154
Producing Stable Interpretations: Auditory

Perception 155
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.2 156

The Skin and Body Senses: From Touch to
Movement 157
Learning Goals 157
Touch 157
Temperature 158
Experiencing Pain 158
The Kinesthetic Sense 159
The Vestibular Sense 160
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.3 160

The Chemical Senses: Smell and
Taste 161
Learning Goals 161
Smell 161
Taste 162
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.4 163

From the Physical to the Psychological 163
Learning Goals 163
Stimulus Detection 164
Difference Thresholds 165
Sensory Adaptation 166
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.5 166

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How We Build the World of Experience 166
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 167
Terms to Remember 169
Media Resources 169

6 • Consciousness 170
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What is Consciousness For? 171

Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning:
Attention 173
Learning Goals 173
Experiments on Attention: Dichotic Listening 173
Processing Without Attention: Automaticity 175

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Cell Phones And Driving 176

Disorders of Attention 177
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.1 179

Sleeping and Dreaming 179
Learning Goals 179
Biological Rhythms 180
The Characteristics of Sleep 180
The Function of Sleep 184
The Function of REM and Dreaming 185
Disorders of Sleep 187
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.2 189

Altering Awareness: Psychoactive
Drugs 190
Learning Goals 190
Drug Actions and Effects 190
Categories of Psychoactive Drugs 191
Psychological Factors 194
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.3 195

Altering Awareness: Induced States 195
Learning Goals 195
The Phenomenon of Hypnosis 196
Explaining Hypnosis 198
Meditation 199
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.4 200

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Consciousness Is For 200

cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 201
Terms to Remember 203
Media Resources 203

7 • Learning From
Experience 204
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Learn From Experience? 205

Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring 206

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x | Contents

Learning Goal 206
Habituation and Sensitization 206
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.1 208

Learning What Events Signal: Classical
Conditioning 209
Learning Goals 209
The Terminology of Classical Conditioning 209
Forming the CS–US Connection 210
Conditioned Responding: Why Does

It Develop? 211
Second-Order Conditioning 212

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Taste Aversions 213

Stimulus Generalization 214
Stimulus Discrimination 215
An Application: Drug Tolerance 215
Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals

the US 216
Conditioned Inhibition: Signaling the Absence

of the US 217
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.2 219

Learning About the Consequences of
Behavior: Operant Conditioning 219
Learning Goals 219
The Law of Effect 220
The Discriminative Stimulus: Knowing When to

Respond 221
The Nature of Reinforcement 222
Punishment: Lowering the Likelihood of a

Response 223
Schedules of Reinforcement 224
Shaping: Acquiring Complex Behaviors 227
Biological Constraints on Learning 227
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.3 228

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Superstitious Behavior 229

Learning From Others: Observational
Learning 229
Learning Goals 229
Modeling: Learning From Others 230
Practical Considerations 231
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.4 232

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Learning From Experience 232
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 233
Terms to Remember 234
Media Resources 235

8 • Memory 236
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Memory For? 237

Remembering Over the Short Term 239
Learning Goals 239
Sensory Memory: The Icon and the Echo 239
Short-Term Memory: Prolonging the Present 241
The Working Memory Model 245
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.1 246

Storing Information for the Long Term 246
Learning Goals 246
What Is Stored in Long-Term Memory? 246
Elaboration: Connecting Material to Existing

Knowledge 247
Mnemonic Devices 250
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.2 253

Recovering Information From Cues 253
Learning Goals 253
The Importance of Retrieval Cues 253
Reconstructive Remembering 256

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Self-Testing “Appropriately” for Exams 257

Remembering Without Awareness:
Implicit Memory 259

Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.3 260

Updating Memory 261
Learning Goals 261
How Quickly Do We Forget? 261
Why Do We Forget? 262
Motivated Forgetting 263
The Neuroscience of Forgetting 265
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.4 267

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN 
What Memory Is For 267
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 268
Terms to Remember 269
Media Resources 269

9 • Language and Thought 270
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Cognitive Processes For? 271

Communicating With Others 273
Learning Goals 273

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | xi

The Structure of Language 273
Language Comprehension 276
Language Development 277
Language in Nonhuman Species 279
Is Language an Adaptation? 281
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.1 282

Classifying and Categorizing 282
Learning Goals 282
Defining Category Membership 283
Do People Store Category Prototypes? 284
The Hierarchical Structure of Categories 286
Where Do Categories Come From? 286
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.2 287

Solving Problems 287
Learning Goals 287
Representing Problem Information 288
Developing Problem-Solving Strategies 290
Reaching the Aha! Moment: Insight 292

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Having Difficulty? Take a Break! 293

Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.3 293

Making Decisions 294
Learning Goals 294
Framing Decision Alternatives 294
Decision-Making Biases 295
Decision-Making Heuristics 296
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.4 299

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Cognitive Processes Are For 300
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 301
Terms to Remember 302
Media Resources 303

10 • Intelligence 304
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Study Intelligence? 305

Conceptualizing Intelligence 307
Learning Goals 307
Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind 307
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 310
Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Case Study

Approach 310
Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg’s Triarchic

Theory 312
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.1 313

Measuring Individual Differences 314
Learning Goals 314
The Components of a Good Test 314
IQ: The Intelligence Quotient 316
Extremes of Intelligence 318
The Validity of Intelligence Testing 319
Individual Differences Related to Intelligence 321

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Can Mozart’s Music Make You Smarter? 323

Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.2 324

Discovering the Sources of Intelligence 324
Learning Goals 324
The Stability of IQ 325
Nature: The Genetic Argument 327
Nurture: The Environmental Argument 329
The Interaction of Nature and Nurture 331
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.3 333

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Psychologists Study Intelligence 333
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 334
Terms to Remember 335
Media Resources 335

11 • Motivation and Emotion 336
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Motivation and Emotion For? 337

Activating Behavior 339
Learning Goals 339
Internal Factors: Instincts and Drive 339
External Factors: Incentive Motivation 340
Achievement Motivation 341
Intrinsic Motivation 342
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 343
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.1 344

Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger 
and Eating 345
Learning Goals 345
Internal Factors Controlling Hunger 345
External Factors Controlling Hunger 347

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Dietary Variety and Weight Gain 348

Regulating Body Weight 348
Eating Disorders 350
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.2 352

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has
deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xii | Contents

Meeting Biological Needs:
Sexual Behavior 352
Learning Goals 352
The Sexual Response Cycle 353
Internal Factors 354
External Factors 355
Mate Selection 356
Sexual Orientation 357
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.3 358

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion 359
Learning Goals 359
Are There Basic Emotions? 359
The Emotional Experience: Arousal 362
The Emotional Experience: Subjective

Reactions 362
Theories of Emotion: Body to Mind 365
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.4 368

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Motivation and Emotion Are For 369
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 370
Terms to Remember 371
Media Resources 371

12 • Personality 372
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Personality For? 373

Conceptualizing and Measuring
Personality 374
Learning Goals 374
The Factor Analytic Approach 375
Allport’s Trait Theory 377
Personality Tests 378
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.1 381

Determining How Personality Develops 381
Learning Goals 381
The Psychodynamic Approach of Freud 381
Humanistic Approaches to Personality 386
Social–Cognitive Approaches to Personality 389
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.2 393

Resolving the Person–Situation Debate 394
Learning Goals 394
The Person–Situation Debate 394

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

The Value of Self-Monitoring 396

Genetic Factors in Personality 396

Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.3 399

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Personality Is For 399
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 400
Terms to Remember 401
Media Resources 401

13 • Social Psychology 402
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Social Processes For? 403

Interpreting the Behavior of Others:
Social Cognition 404
Learning Goals 404
Person Perception: How Do We Form

Impressions of Others? 404

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Combating Prejudice 409

Attribution Theory: Attributing Causes to
Behavior 409

Attitudes and Attitude Change 413
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.1 417

Behaving in the Presence of Others:
Social Influence 418
Learning Goals 418
Social Facilitation and Interference 418
Social Influences on Altruism:

The Bystander Effect 419
The Power of the Group 421
Group Decision Making 424
The Power of Authority: Obedience 426
The Role of Culture 429
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.2 430

Establishing Relations With Others 431
Learning Goals 431
What Makes a Face Attractive? 431
Determinants of Liking and Loving 433
The Psychology of Romantic Love 436
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.3 438

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Social Processes Are For 438
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 439
Terms to Remember 440
Media Resources 441

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents | xiii

14 • Psychological Disorders 442
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Psychological Disorders? 443

Conceptualizing Abnormality:
What Is Abnormal Behavior? 445
Learning Goals 445
Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior 445
The Concept of Insanity 447
The Medical Model: Conceptualizing

Abnormality as a Disease 448
Problems Associated With Labeling 448
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.1 450

Classifying Psychological Disorders 450
Learning Goals 450
Anxiety Disorders: Fear and Apprehension 452
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 454
Somatic Symptom Disorders: Body and Mind 455
Dissociative Disorders: Disruptions

of Identity or Awareness 456
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 457

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Suicide Prevention 460

Schizophrenia: Faulty Thought Processes 460
Personality Disorders 462
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.2 463

Understanding Psychological Disorders: Biological,
Cognitive, or Environmental? 463
Learning Goals 463
Biological Factors: Is It in the Brain or Genes? 464
Cognitive Factors: Is It Maladaptive

Thoughts and Beliefs? 467
Environmental Factors: Is It Learned

Through Experience? 468
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.3 470

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Psychological Disorders Are 471
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 472
Terms to Remember 473
Media Resources 473

15 • Therapy 474
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Psychotherapy For? 475

Treating the Body:
Biomedical Therapies 477

Learning Goals 477
Drug Therapies 477
Electroconvulsive Therapy 480
Psychosurgery 481
Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.1 482

Treating the Mind:
Insight Therapies …

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Psychology
James S. Nairne

Purdue University

th edition6

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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Psychology, 6th edition
James S. Nairne

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● To Beverly H. Nairne

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James S. Nairne is the Reece McGee Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences

at Purdue University. Recognized internationally as both a scholar and a teacher, he has

received numerous teaching honors at Purdue, including the Liberal Arts Excellence in

Education Award and the Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award. In 2001, he was

named a Fellow of the Purdue Teaching Academy, and in 2004 he was given a permanent

position in Purdue’s Book of Great Teachers. He is also former director of the Honors Pro-

gram for the College of Liberal Arts. Professor Nairne received his Ph.D. in Human Mem-

ory and Cognition from Yale University.

About the Author

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1 • An Introduction to Psychology 2
2 • The Tools of Psychological Research 26
3 • Biological Processes 56
4 • Human Development 90
5 • Sensation and Perception 130
6 • Consciousness 170
7 • Learning From Experience 204
8 • Memory 236
9 • Language and Thought 270
1 0 • Intelligence 304
1 1 • Motivation and Emotion 336
1 2 • Personality 372
1 3 • Social Psychology 402
1 4 • Psychological Disorders 442
1 5 • Therapy 474
1 6 • Stress and Health 506

Appendix A–1

Glossary G–1

References R–1

Indexes I–1

● Brief Contents

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deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

● Contents

1 • An Introduction to
Psychology 2
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is the Function of Psychology? 3

Defining and Describing Psychology 5
Learning Goals 5
What Psychologists Do 6

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself! 9

Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1 9

Tracing the Development of
Psychology: A Brief History 10
Learning Goals 10
Mind and Body: Are They the Same? 10
Nature and Nurture: Where Does

Knowledge Come From? 11
The First Schools: Psychology as Science 12
Freud and the Humanists: The Influence

of the Clinic 15
The First Women in Psychology 16
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.2 17

Identifying the Focus of
Modern Psychology 18
Learning Goals 18
Cognitive Factors 18
Biological Factors 19
Evolutionary Psychology 20
Cultural Factors 21
Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.3 22

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
The Function of Psychology 23
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 24
Terms to Remember 25
Media Resources 25

2 • The Tools of Psychological
Research 26
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Unlock the Secrets of
Behavior and Mind? 27

Observing Behavior:
Descriptive Research 30
Learning Goals 30
Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life 31
Case Studies: Focusing on the Individual 32
Surveys: Focusing on the Group 32
Psychological Tests: Assessing

Individual Differences 34
Statistics: Summarizing and Interpreting the Data 35

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

How Should a Teacher Grade? 37

Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.1 38

Predicting Behavior:
Correlational Research 38
Learning Goals 38
Correlational Research 39
Correlations and Causality 41
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.2 42

Explaining Behavior:
Experimental Research 42
Learning Goals 42
Independent and Dependent Variables 43
Experimental Control 44
Expectancies and Biases in Experimental Research 46
Generalizing Experimental Conclusions 48
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.3 48

The Ethics of Research: Human and
Animal Guidelines 49
Learning Goals 49
Informed Consent 49

vii

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viii | Contents

Debriefing and Confidentiality 50
The Ethics of Animal Research 50
Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.4 52

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Unlocking the Secrets of Mind and Behavior 53
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 54
Terms to Remember 55
Media Resources 55

3 • Biological Processes 56
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Biological Processes For? 57

Communicating Internally: Connecting
World and Brain 58
Learning Goals 58
The Anatomy of Neurons 60
Neural Transmission:

The Electrochemical Message 60
The Communication Network 65
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.1 65

Initiating Behavior: A Division of Labor 66
Learning Goals 66
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 66
How We Determine Brain Function 68
Brain Structures and Their Functions 71

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Mirror Neurons: Solving the “Other Mind Problem” 77

The Divided Brain 77
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.2 79

Regulating Growth and Internal Functions:
Extended Communication 80
Learning Goals 80
The Endocrine System 80
Do Men and Woman Have Different Brains? 81
Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.3 82

Adapting and Transmitting the Genetic Code 83
Learning Goals 83
Natural Selection and Adaptations 83
Genetic Principles 84
Genes and Behavior 85
Recall–Monitor–Recall 3.4 86

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Biological Processes Are For 87
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 87
Terms to Remember 88
Media Resources 89

4 • Human Development 90
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Development For? 91

Developing Physically 92
Learning Goals 92
The Stages of Prenatal Development 92
Growth During Infancy 95
From Crawling to Walking 96
From Toddlerhood to Adolescence 97
Becoming an Adult 97
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.1 99

Developing Intellectually 100
Learning Goals 100
The Tools of Investigation 100
The Growing Perceptual World 102
Piaget and the Development of Thought 104
The Sensorimotor Period: Birth to Two Years 105
The Preoperational Period: Two to Seven Years 105
The Concrete Operational Period: Seven to Eleven

Years 106
The Formal Operational Period: Eleven to

Adulthood 107
Challenges to Piaget’s Theory 108
Core Knowledge 110
Moral Development: Learning Right

From Wrong 111
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.2 113

Developing Socially and Personally 114
Learning Goals 114
Forming Bonds With Others 114
The Origins of Attachment 114
Types of Attachment 116
Do Early Attachments Matter Later in Life? 117
Day Care: What Are the Long-Term Effects? 118

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Choosing a Day-Care Center 120

Forming a Personal Identity: Erikson’s Crises of
Development 120

Gender-Role Development 123
Growing Old 124
Death and Dying 125
Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.3 127

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Development Is For 127
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 128
Terms to Remember 129
Media Resources 129

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Contents | ix

5 • Sensation and
Perception 130
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Build the World of Experience? 131

Vision: The World of Color and Form 133
Learning Goals 133
Translating the Message 133
Identifying the Message Components 138
Producing Stable Interpretations: Visual

Perception 142

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Creating Illusions Of Depth 147

Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.1 151

Hearing: Identifying and Localizing Sounds 152
Learning Goals 152
Translating the Message 152
Identifying the Message Components 154
Producing Stable Interpretations: Auditory

Perception 155
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.2 156

The Skin and Body Senses: From Touch to
Movement 157
Learning Goals 157
Touch 157
Temperature 158
Experiencing Pain 158
The Kinesthetic Sense 159
The Vestibular Sense 160
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.3 160

The Chemical Senses: Smell and
Taste 161
Learning Goals 161
Smell 161
Taste 162
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.4 163

From the Physical to the Psychological 163
Learning Goals 163
Stimulus Detection 164
Difference Thresholds 165
Sensory Adaptation 166
Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.5 166

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How We Build the World of Experience 166
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 167
Terms to Remember 169
Media Resources 169

6 • Consciousness 170
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What is Consciousness For? 171

Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning:
Attention 173
Learning Goals 173
Experiments on Attention: Dichotic Listening 173
Processing Without Attention: Automaticity 175

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Cell Phones And Driving 176

Disorders of Attention 177
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.1 179

Sleeping and Dreaming 179
Learning Goals 179
Biological Rhythms 180
The Characteristics of Sleep 180
The Function of Sleep 184
The Function of REM and Dreaming 185
Disorders of Sleep 187
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.2 189

Altering Awareness: Psychoactive
Drugs 190
Learning Goals 190
Drug Actions and Effects 190
Categories of Psychoactive Drugs 191
Psychological Factors 194
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.3 195

Altering Awareness: Induced States 195
Learning Goals 195
The Phenomenon of Hypnosis 196
Explaining Hypnosis 198
Meditation 199
Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.4 200

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Consciousness Is For 200

cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 201
Terms to Remember 203
Media Resources 203

7 • Learning From
Experience 204
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do We Learn From Experience? 205

Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring 206

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x | Contents

Learning Goal 206
Habituation and Sensitization 206
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.1 208

Learning What Events Signal: Classical
Conditioning 209
Learning Goals 209
The Terminology of Classical Conditioning 209
Forming the CS–US Connection 210
Conditioned Responding: Why Does

It Develop? 211
Second-Order Conditioning 212

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Taste Aversions 213

Stimulus Generalization 214
Stimulus Discrimination 215
An Application: Drug Tolerance 215
Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals

the US 216
Conditioned Inhibition: Signaling the Absence

of the US 217
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.2 219

Learning About the Consequences of
Behavior: Operant Conditioning 219
Learning Goals 219
The Law of Effect 220
The Discriminative Stimulus: Knowing When to

Respond 221
The Nature of Reinforcement 222
Punishment: Lowering the Likelihood of a

Response 223
Schedules of Reinforcement 224
Shaping: Acquiring Complex Behaviors 227
Biological Constraints on Learning 227
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.3 228

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Superstitious Behavior 229

Learning From Others: Observational
Learning 229
Learning Goals 229
Modeling: Learning From Others 230
Practical Considerations 231
Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.4 232

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
Learning From Experience 232
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 233
Terms to Remember 234
Media Resources 235

8 • Memory 236
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Memory For? 237

Remembering Over the Short Term 239
Learning Goals 239
Sensory Memory: The Icon and the Echo 239
Short-Term Memory: Prolonging the Present 241
The Working Memory Model 245
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.1 246

Storing Information for the Long Term 246
Learning Goals 246
What Is Stored in Long-Term Memory? 246
Elaboration: Connecting Material to Existing

Knowledge 247
Mnemonic Devices 250
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.2 253

Recovering Information From Cues 253
Learning Goals 253
The Importance of Retrieval Cues 253
Reconstructive Remembering 256

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Self-Testing “Appropriately” for Exams 257

Remembering Without Awareness:
Implicit Memory 259

Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.3 260

Updating Memory 261
Learning Goals 261
How Quickly Do We Forget? 261
Why Do We Forget? 262
Motivated Forgetting 263
The Neuroscience of Forgetting 265
Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.4 267

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN 
What Memory Is For 267
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 268
Terms to Remember 269
Media Resources 269

9 • Language and Thought 270
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Cognitive Processes For? 271

Communicating With Others 273
Learning Goals 273

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Contents | xi

The Structure of Language 273
Language Comprehension 276
Language Development 277
Language in Nonhuman Species 279
Is Language an Adaptation? 281
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.1 282

Classifying and Categorizing 282
Learning Goals 282
Defining Category Membership 283
Do People Store Category Prototypes? 284
The Hierarchical Structure of Categories 286
Where Do Categories Come From? 286
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.2 287

Solving Problems 287
Learning Goals 287
Representing Problem Information 288
Developing Problem-Solving Strategies 290
Reaching the Aha! Moment: Insight 292

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Having Difficulty? Take a Break! 293

Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.3 293

Making Decisions 294
Learning Goals 294
Framing Decision Alternatives 294
Decision-Making Biases 295
Decision-Making Heuristics 296
Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.4 299

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Cognitive Processes Are For 300
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 301
Terms to Remember 302
Media Resources 303

10 • Intelligence 304
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Do Psychologists Study Intelligence? 305

Conceptualizing Intelligence 307
Learning Goals 307
Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind 307
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 310
Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Case Study

Approach 310
Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg’s Triarchic

Theory 312
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.1 313

Measuring Individual Differences 314
Learning Goals 314
The Components of a Good Test 314
IQ: The Intelligence Quotient 316
Extremes of Intelligence 318
The Validity of Intelligence Testing 319
Individual Differences Related to Intelligence 321

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Can Mozart’s Music Make You Smarter? 323

Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.2 324

Discovering the Sources of Intelligence 324
Learning Goals 324
The Stability of IQ 325
Nature: The Genetic Argument 327
Nurture: The Environmental Argument 329
The Interaction of Nature and Nurture 331
Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.3 333

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
How Psychologists Study Intelligence 333
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 334
Terms to Remember 335
Media Resources 335

11 • Motivation and Emotion 336
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Motivation and Emotion For? 337

Activating Behavior 339
Learning Goals 339
Internal Factors: Instincts and Drive 339
External Factors: Incentive Motivation 340
Achievement Motivation 341
Intrinsic Motivation 342
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 343
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.1 344

Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger 
and Eating 345
Learning Goals 345
Internal Factors Controlling Hunger 345
External Factors Controlling Hunger 347

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Dietary Variety and Weight Gain 348

Regulating Body Weight 348
Eating Disorders 350
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.2 352

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xii | Contents

Meeting Biological Needs:
Sexual Behavior 352
Learning Goals 352
The Sexual Response Cycle 353
Internal Factors 354
External Factors 355
Mate Selection 356
Sexual Orientation 357
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.3 358

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion 359
Learning Goals 359
Are There Basic Emotions? 359
The Emotional Experience: Arousal 362
The Emotional Experience: Subjective

Reactions 362
Theories of Emotion: Body to Mind 365
Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.4 368

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Motivation and Emotion Are For 369
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 370
Terms to Remember 371
Media Resources 371

12 • Personality 372
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Personality For? 373

Conceptualizing and Measuring
Personality 374
Learning Goals 374
The Factor Analytic Approach 375
Allport’s Trait Theory 377
Personality Tests 378
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.1 381

Determining How Personality Develops 381
Learning Goals 381
The Psychodynamic Approach of Freud 381
Humanistic Approaches to Personality 386
Social–Cognitive Approaches to Personality 389
Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.2 393

Resolving the Person–Situation Debate 394
Learning Goals 394
The Person–Situation Debate 394

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

The Value of Self-Monitoring 396

Genetic Factors in Personality 396

Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.3 399

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Personality Is For 399
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 400
Terms to Remember 401
Media Resources 401

13 • Social Psychology 402
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Social Processes For? 403

Interpreting the Behavior of Others:
Social Cognition 404
Learning Goals 404
Person Perception: How Do We Form

Impressions of Others? 404

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Combating Prejudice 409

Attribution Theory: Attributing Causes to
Behavior 409

Attitudes and Attitude Change 413
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.1 417

Behaving in the Presence of Others:
Social Influence 418
Learning Goals 418
Social Facilitation and Interference 418
Social Influences on Altruism:

The Bystander Effect 419
The Power of the Group 421
Group Decision Making 424
The Power of Authority: Obedience 426
The Role of Culture 429
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.2 430

Establishing Relations With Others 431
Learning Goals 431
What Makes a Face Attractive? 431
Determinants of Liking and Loving 433
The Psychology of Romantic Love 436
Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.3 438

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Social Processes Are For 438
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 439
Terms to Remember 440
Media Resources 441

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Contents | xiii

14 • Psychological Disorders 442
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Are Psychological Disorders? 443

Conceptualizing Abnormality:
What Is Abnormal Behavior? 445
Learning Goals 445
Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior 445
The Concept of Insanity 447
The Medical Model: Conceptualizing

Abnormality as a Disease 448
Problems Associated With Labeling 448
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.1 450

Classifying Psychological Disorders 450
Learning Goals 450
Anxiety Disorders: Fear and Apprehension 452
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 454
Somatic Symptom Disorders: Body and Mind 455
Dissociative Disorders: Disruptions

of Identity or Awareness 456
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 457

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Suicide Prevention 460

Schizophrenia: Faulty Thought Processes 460
Personality Disorders 462
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.2 463

Understanding Psychological Disorders: Biological,
Cognitive, or Environmental? 463
Learning Goals 463
Biological Factors: Is It in the Brain or Genes? 464
Cognitive Factors: Is It Maladaptive

Thoughts and Beliefs? 467
Environmental Factors: Is It Learned

Through Experience? 468
Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.3 470

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Psychological Disorders Are 471
cHApTeR RevIew
Interactive Summary 472
Terms to Remember 473
Media Resources 473

15 • Therapy 474
psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN
What Is Psychotherapy For? 475

Treating the Body:
Biomedical Therapies 477

Learning Goals 477
Drug Therapies 477
Electroconvulsive Therapy 480
Psychosurgery 481
Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.1 482

Treating the Mind:
Insight Therapies …

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