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4-6 Pages Long (not including footnotes, bibliographic information or titles).
Title page is required. Give an original title, your Full Name, Student Number, Course, Date and Instructor.
Times New Roman 12pt Font, one inch margins, numbered pages.
CMS Citations and a Bibliography MUST be provided. Failure to provide any footnotes will result in an automatic ‘ZERO’. Do not include the annotations in the bibliography.


Demonstrate a clear comprehension of the topic by selecting appropriate research material, asking interesting questions and contextualizing/comparing different sources.
Produce a clear and effective thesis statement that encapsulates the content of the Final Draft.
Tell the reader something new that they don’t know already!

KEY QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER: (Do not give a list of answers)

What type of source material are you using and why does this provide a useful answer to your research question?
Why does the source material favour certain arguments or ideas rather than others? How does this relate to the historical context of the topic?
How does your research relate to other historians’ work? Are you adding to the historical record or challenging something that a historian has said?
What are the limits of your research? Demonstrate an understanding of the strengths and limitations of your specific project. Nothing in history is all-important.


Remember that the goal is to explain to the reader what your essay is going to be proving. A thesis statement should encapsulate all of the main ideas that your paper will present.
Suggested format: “This paper will argue ____________________, because 1. ________, 2. ____________ and 3.____________”

Essay Format

Introduction: Frame your topic and your documents. What will this paper be working on? Finish with the Thesis Statement.

Second Introductory Paragraph: Brief description of your specific This should be the only place you discuss the topic itself.

Body Paragraphs: your 5-8 best ideas to explain your thesis.

Each paragraph needs a topic sentence that states exactly what you are saying in the paragraph. Support this with at least TWO points from your research, each with a footnote.
Each reference should have a separate sentence explaining how it supports your ideas. Analysis/explanation is the priority in grading.

Conclusion: Restate your position (thesis) and summarize your argument (not the topic). Then you can mention any larger thoughts you have – how does it impact subsequent history, personal reflection etc.

Why does this group of sources contribute to our understanding of a specific aspect of European history? What makes these documents worthwhile for historians?
the below attached pdf is the outline of this essay, also there is one comment in the end of outline which tells us what needed.
this essay is on secondary source which is –
to open this link you need username and password, which is username- 10120466 and password- kaur


Role of Marie de Gourney uplifting feminism in early modern period

Manreet Kaur
12, March 2021
Iain O’Shea


Equality between men and women has always been a topic of great conflict, witnessed even before three thousand years. It has not only seen limited to a particular community but has had it occurrence worldwide, where males have always been seen to dominate women. This research paper will outline how a female voice stood out between all the males in an era completely dominated by males. It will discuss the issues of inequality that women have been facing in the aspect of European history and how the voice of woman named “Marie le Jars de Gournay” had a great influence with her writing. She defined herself as an impactful, pioneering female voice that was speaking boldly against feminist issues in France. Further all the evidence as well as problems she faced in late 1700’s will be discussed.
1-Marie de Gournay-
· Born in Paris, October 6, 1565 – July 13, 1645. [footnoteRef:1] [1: Marie le Jars de Gournay, Apology for the Woman Writing and Other Works (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2002), 3.

· A famous French Writer.
· She promoted feminism through her famous writings. Gournay argued that women should be given the same opportunities, privileges, and education as men, women could equal men’s accomplishments.
· Know for her famous writings.
2- Inequality and discrimination-
· was not only a thought of the society but also was believed by great authors such as Aristotle, stating the males “superior” than females which clearly influenced the society[footnoteRef:2]. [2: Gourney, Apology for the Woman Writing, 8.]

· Among these male dominating eras in the early 1590’s, emerged a voice, dedicating herself to a mission for educating women. She was one of the four daughters. This started after the death of her father who was her source of inspiration for writing.[footnoteRef:3] [3: Gourney, Apology for the Woman Writing, 5.]

· In her book called “The Promenade of monsieur de Montagne” she mentions that as a female writer, her writing is restricted and describes her writing as flaccid or weak as compared to male writers.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Gourney, Apology for the Woman Writing, 30.]

3- In Gourney’s writing Equality of men and women-
· the masculinity is not only preferred by these people, but they tend to restrict the freedom of women because of their beliefs.
· “they have heard it cried in the streets that women lack value, as well as intellectual ability”[footnoteRef:5]. [5: Gourney, Apology for the Woman Writing, 75.]

· “She strongly criticises men and refer them as “dolt/stupid who support the beliefs that cannot be substantiated.”[footnoteRef:6] [6: Gourney, Apology for the Women Writing, 75.]

She strongly delivers the “truth” that females and males are both humans, and they just have been differentiated by the nature for the sake of propagation. She touches in her writing that men and women can empower and support each other. Instead of, men dominating the women.
· the thinking of males in that era, who perceived them as “god”.[footnoteRef:7] [7: Gourney, Apology for the Women Writing, 75.]

– The men who can defeat anyone in this world, even the Hercules, who can win all the wars. She makes a remark on the males saying that they strengthen themselves on the voice of females that are not speaking for themselves.
She reasons the condition of men achieving this supremacy is due to women who are not able get the advantage of good education as men. Their difference in the education of men and women creates a gap in the mindsets of them, which results in men excelling in this society. She questions that why their education should not be same as the education being provided to males. She states an example the princess and queens of Italy were capable and did not lack intellectual ability because they were provided with resources and support to stand out. If the same types of resources and upbringing is provided to all the females, it can assist in filling this gap between the former and the latter.
4- Gourney’s experiences as a woman in this world- “The ladies’ complaint” –
· they will know that the same so-phistication they aim at in disdaining that sex without hearing it or reading its writings—that sex itself seeks it out, turning the tables on them, because it has heard them and has read the things that come from their hands[footnoteRef:8] [8: Gourney, Apology for the Women Writing, 105.]

· This writing is regarded as an “outburst” against male misogyny.[footnoteRef:9] [9: Gourney, Apology for the Women Writing, 101.]

– It is a privilege and indeed fascinating as a reader to witness that a female writer, who is surrounded by all the male dominating society of readers, had the courage to publicly reveal her thoughts about this issue. She not only wanted to be renowned for her work as a writer and gain the popularity but was self-driven to raise this sensitive issue to create awareness. She had to go through a lot of criticism for her feminist writing.
5-Lastly, “Apology for the women writing”-
· This writing was motivated of her being an independent unmarried woman with intellectual ability.[footnoteRef:10] [10: Gourney, Apology for the Women Writing, 107.]

· In which she follows her struggle to reach there, followed by a financial crisis in her family, where she played the part of freeing her family from the debts. She created the hope of independence as woman, by describing the harsh reality of women dependent on men.


Marie le Jars de Gournay. Apology for the Woman Writing and Other Works. The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Comment by prof. on outline-
Hello Manreet, There is some solid material here and an excellent primary source. The research will need to include some relevant secondary sources to help develop this topic. The introduction begins with some over-broad generalizations. Get straight to the particular topic and set up the specific time and place under investigation. The thesis needs to set up an argument to prove rather than summarizing facts about the topic. Look deeper into the motivations and perspective of the author rather than repeating it as purely factual description. The topic sentences are only partially complete and would benefit from development more complete and specific ideas. Make your own point before providing the evidence of the sources. There are good pieces here illustrating Gourney’s criticisms, and these would benefit from being evaluated with some relevant secondary sources. This would help develop the specific social and cultural context for Gourney so you can get a better idea of the real position women of her nationality, class and culture were treated. Overall, the outline has lots of good information and examples. It needs to be clearly directed by your own original argument about the specific contextualized meaning of the text. Instead of treating it in universal terms, locate her in time and space.

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