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Mind Over Milkshakes:
Mindsets, Not Just Nutrients, Determine Ghrelin Response

Alia J. Crum
Yale University

William R. Corbin
Arizona State University

Kelly D. Brownell and Peter Salovey
Yale University

Objective: To test whether physiological satiation as measured by the gut peptide ghrelin may vary
depending on the mindset in which one approaches consumption of food. Methods: On 2 separate
occasions, participants (n � 46) consumed a 380-calorie milkshake under the pretense that it was either
a 620-calorie “indulgent” shake or a 140-calorie “sensible” shake. Ghrelin was measured via intravenous
blood samples at 3 time points: baseline (20 min), anticipatory (60 min), and postconsumption (90 min).
During the first interval (between 20 and 60 min) participants were asked to view and rate the
(misleading) label of the shake. During the second interval (between 60 and 90 min) participants were
asked to drink and rate the milkshake. Results: The mindset of indulgence produced a dramatically
steeper decline in ghrelin after consuming the shake, whereas the mindset of sensibility produced a
relatively flat ghrelin response. Participants’ satiety was consistent with what they believed they were
consuming rather than the actual nutritional value of what they consumed. Conclusions: The effect of
food consumption on ghrelin may be psychologically mediated, and mindset meaningfully affects
physiological responses to food.

Keywords: mindset, nutrition, ghrelin, hunger, product labeling

Although often ignored, one’s mindset (thoughts, beliefs, and
expectations) is a key component in various domains of health.
The mere expectation to heal even in the absence of active phar-
maceutical or chemical substances enhances the effect of medica-
tion (e.g., Brody, 1980; Price, Finniss, Benedetti, 2008); one’s
interpretation of events despite their objective characteristics de-
termines the impact of stress and illness on the body (e.g., Cohen
& Williamson, 1991; Park, 2006); and identifying housework as a
good source of exercise can elicit corresponding physiological
benefits without any changes in actual activity (Crum & Langer,
2007). Evidence continues to point to the idea that one’s state of
mind influences the body, and we cannot easily separate the
interdependence of mind and body (Langer, 2009).

Studies of food expectancies suggest an important role for a per-
son’s mindset in determining taste and preference. For instance,
people like the taste of Coke better when it is consumed from a
brand-name cup (McClure et al., 2004); strawberry yogurt and cheese
spreads are enjoyed less if they are labeled “low-fat” (Wardle &
Solomons, 1994); adding vinegar to beer under the labeling “special
ingredient” can actually improve taste ratings (provided the consumer
is unaware that the “special ingredient” is vinegar; Lee, Frederick, &
Ariely, 2006); and manipulating the perceived cost of wine to be more
expensive (but not the wine itself) can result in heightened activity in
the medial orbital frontal cortex, the pleasure center of the brain
(Plassmann, O’Doherty, Shiv, & Rangel, 2008).

Food labels and perceptions also affect hunger as well as subse-
quent food consumption. For example, people tend to modify their
eating based on perceived calorie intake such that, when a high or low
calorie preload is presented as high or low calorie, actual caloric
content matters little as compared to perceived caloric intake. In
general, when people think they have eaten a high calorie preload they
report greater fullness and eat less in response, whereas when people
believe they have eaten a low calorie preload they report more hunger
and eat more in response (e.g., Polivy, 1976; Provencher, Polivy, &
Herman, 2009; Wooley, Wooley, & Woods, 1975). These differences
are often moderated by restrained eating such that highly restrained
participants tend to eat even more after perceiving themselves as
having consumed a high calorie preload, a phenomenon called coun-
terregulatory eating (e.g., Knight & Boland, 1989; Polivy, 1976;
Spencer & Fremouw, 1979).

This article was published Online First May 16, 2011.
Alia J. Crum, Kelly D. Brownell, and Peter Salovey, Department of

Psychology, Yale University; William R. Corbin, Department of Psychol-
ogy, Arizona State University.

We thank the Rudd Foundation and the Yale Center for Clinical Inves-
tigation for financial and logistical support. We also thank Ellen Langer,
Thomas Horvath, Shirley McCarthy, and Sonia Caprio for their intellectual
guidance, Cathy Crum for her comments on this article, and Gibbs Graph-
ics for the label design.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alia J.
Crum, Department of Psychology, Yale University, P.O. Box 208205, New
Haven, CT 06520. E-mail: [email protected]

Health Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association
2011, Vol. 30, No. 4, 424 – 429 0278-6133/11/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0023467


In the past decade, investigators have improved our understand-
ing of the molecular mechanisms that control food intake and body
weight. Central to this line of research has been the identification
and characterization of metabolic signals that serve as fundamental
indexes of energy balance. A hormone that has proved to be
particularly influential is the gut peptide ghrelin. Identified in
1999, ghrelin is an essential indicator of energy insufficiency.
When energy intake is low or the stomach is empty, ghrelin is
secreted from the endocrine cells of the stomach and transported in
the bloodstream to the brain, where it binds with receptors in the
arcuate nucleus and the ventromedial hypothalamus to produce the
sensation of hunger and motivate consumption. As energy intake
increases and nutrients are detected in the gastrointestinal tract,
ghrelin levels are suppressed, thereby signaling to the brain via
neural and endocrine mechanisms to reduce appetite and increase
feelings of satiety (Baynes, Dhillo, & Bloom, 2006; Murphy,
Dhillo, & Bloom, 2006).

In principle, the rise and fall of ghrelin occur systematically and
in proportion to calories consumed to achieve a healthy metabolic
balance (Zigman & Elmquist, 2003). However the communication
between the metabolic and neurological systems is complex. Even
subtle changes can have profound implications for health and
homeostasis (Murphy et al., 2006). For example, among obese
individuals, the usual postprandial reduction in ghrelin is absent or
attenuated suggesting that abnormalities in the gut hormone sig-
naling system may be associated with weight gain and obesity
(Cummings, 2006). Peripheral or intracereroventricular adminis-
tration of ghrelin in both humans and rodents has been shown to
promote food intake and body weight gain (e.g., Theander-Carillo
et al., 2006; Wren et al., 2001, as cited in Castañeda et al., 2010).

In light of the power of beliefs and expectations in affecting other
physiological processes, we sought to determine whether subtle
changes in the mindset associated with eating might influence the
release of ghrelin in response to food consumption. Considering the
moderating influence of restraint on the psychological effects of
eating behavior and satiety (e.g., Heatherton, Polivy, & Herman,
1989) and the influence of restrained eating on the ghrelin response
(Schur, Cummings, Callahan, & Foster-Schubert, 2008), restrained
eating was also included in the analyses.



Participants were recruited through fliers presenting the oppor-
tunity to participate in a “Shake Tasting Study” at the Yale Center
for Clinical Investigation in exchange for $75 for the two 2.5-hr
sessions. These fliers were posted around the New Haven com-
munity in both on- and off-campus locations in an attempt to
recruit a diverse sample. Participants were between the ages of 18
and 35, within a normal to overweight range of body mass index
(BMI; M � 22.5, SD � 4.04), and were prescreened for diabetes,
pregnancy, chronic medical or psychiatric conditions, and food
allergies to lactose or eggs. Fifty-three participants were recruited;
however, two participants did not attend the second session, and
five participants did not complete the preliminary survey. Data
were analyzed using the 46 participants who completed all com-
ponents of the study (65% women, 78% student, 22% member of

community; 56% White, 12% African American, 11% Asian
American, 10% Hispanic/Latino, and 11% other).

Design and Procedure

Participants were scheduled for two, 2.5-hr sessions at the Yale
Clinical Research Center Hospital Research Unit (HRU). These
sessions were exactly 1 week apart, either at 8:00 a.m. or 8:20 a.m.
after an overnight fast. At the first session, participants were told
that the metabolic kitchen at the Yale Center for Clinical Investi-
gation was working on designing two different milkshakes with
different nutrient contents and that they would taste one milkshake
in the first week and another milkshake the following week. They
were told that the goal of the study was to evaluate whether the
milkshakes tasted similar and to examine the body’s reaction to the
different nutrients (high vs. low fat, high vs. low sugar, etc.).

Unknown to the participants, the contents of the two milkshakes
were identical. However, the labels depicting these beverages differed
from Time 1 to Time 2: The indulgent condition presented the
milkshake as a high fat, high calorie “indulgent” shake; the sensi-
shake condition touted the milkshake as a low fat, low calorie “sen-
sible” shake. The corresponding labels are presented in Figures 1 and
2. Please visit to view the
color versions of these designs.

At each session, an intravenous catheter was placed for blood
drawing, and after a 20-min rest period, the first blood sample was
drawn, followed by samples taken at 60 and 90 min. During the first
interval (between 20 and 60 min) participants were asked to view and
rate the label of the shake. During the second interval (between 60 and
90 min) participants were asked to drink and rate the milkshake. To
control for speed of consumption, participants were instructed to
consume the shake in its entirety within the first 10 min of this
interval. Order of presentation of the two milkshakes was counterbal-
anced so that approximately half (45%) of the participants received
the sensi-shake in the first session and half (55%) of the participants
received the indulgent shake in the first session.


Ghrelin. Ghrelin was measured using a double antibody RIA
(GHRT-89HK) with intra-assay variability of 4 to 10%, and inter-
assay variability of 4.8 to 12.8% (Millipore; St. Charles, MO).
Samples were kept on ice during the collection period after which
they were spun and plasma was stored at �70 °C until they were
batch analyzed. Total amount of blood collected was 90 ccs (45 ccs
per visit).

Taste ratings. During consumption, participants were asked
to comment on various aspects of the milkshake including smell,
appearance, and taste as well as enjoyment and healthiness. Re-
sponses to these questions were assessed via 100-mm visual ana-
logue scales ranging from 0 (not at all) to 100 (extremely).

Hunger ratings. Ten minutes prior to each ghrelin measure-
ment, participants were asked to rate their subjective feelings of
hunger. Responses to these questions were assessed via 100-mm
visual analogue scales ranging from 0 (not at all) to 100 (ex-

Restrained eating. The Dutch Eating Behavior Question-
naire (DEBQ; Van Strien, Frijters, Bergers, & Defares, 1986) was
used to assess dietary restraint. Although this measure also has


subscales for emotional eating and external eating, only the re-
straint subscale was analyzed in this study. We selected this scale
over other measures of restraint because it has been identified as
being a unidimensional measure of restraint (other scales of re-
straint include items about disinhibition, combining successful and
unsuccessful restraint into the same variable; e.g., Allison, Kalin-
ski, & Gorman, 1992; Van Strien et al., 1986). Furthermore, we
felt that this scale would be particularly relevant to the sample of
interest because it has a highly stable factor structure across
genders and weight categories (other scales show higher variability
across weight and gender; e.g., Allison et al., 1992; Gorman &

Allison, 1995; Van Strien, 2007; Wardle, 1987). In the current
sample, reliability of the restraint subscale was adequate (Cron-
bach’s � � .82). In our analyses, restrained eating was dichoto-
mized at the midpoint of the scale (separating those who reported
restraining their eating sometimes or seldom from those who
reported restraining their eating often or always).


To assess the effect of the label manipulation on perceived
healthiness and perceived tastiness of the milkshake, a mixed-

Figure 1. Indulgent shake label.

Figure 2. Sensible shake label.


model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with shake
type (indulgent, sensi-shake), restrained eating (nonrestrained, re-
strained), and order (Session 1, Session 2) included as factors in
the model. For perceived healthiness, these analyses revealed a
significant main effect for type of shake, F(1, 89) � 42.50, p �
.01, �2 � .33, with no significant main or interaction effects for
restrained eating or for the order in which the shakes were con-
sumed. Simple effects tests suggested that participants rated the
sensi-shake as significantly healthier than the indulgent shake,
t(44) � 15.61, p � .01. These differences are illustrated in Figure
3. There were no significant main or interaction effects of shake,
order, or restrained eating on perceived tastiness of the shake.

To test the effect of shake condition on ghrelin and hunger, the
data were first assessed using mixed-model ANOVA with time
(baseline, anticipatory, postconsumption), shake type (indulgent,
sensi-shake) and order (Session 1, Session 2) as fixed factors.
Because the model failed to identify significant main effects or
interactions involving order (suggesting that the ordering of the
sessions did not elicit any reliable differences), the data were
collapsed over order and analyzed using a 2 (shake type: indulgent,
sensi-shake) � 3 (time: baseline, anticipatory, postconsumption)
repeated-measures general linear model (GLM) with restrained
eating as a between-subjects variable. Reflecting the different
patterns of response hypothesized during the anticipatory and
postconsumption phases, we expected a quadratic shake � time
interaction effect.

For ghrelin, the 2 (shake type: indulgent, sensi-shake) � 3
(time: baseline, anticipatory, postconsumption) repeated-measures
GLM produced a reliable quadratic effect, F(1, 44) � 4.36, p �
.04, �2 � .091. To be specific, participants exhibited a steeper rise
in ghrelin in anticipation of the indulgent shake, followed by a
significantly steeper reduction in this biological marker of hunger
after consuming the shake. When drinking the shake in an indul-
gent mindset, participants’ levels of ghrelin reflected a moderate
level of physiological craving followed by a significant level of
physiological satiety. On the other hand, when drinking the shake
in a sensible mindset, participants exhibited flat or slightly in-
creased levels of ghrelin over the course of consumption suggest-
ing that, despite consuming the same nutrient contents, they were
not physiologically satisfied. The 2 (restraint: nonrestrained, re-

strained) � 2 (shake type: indulgent, sensi-shake) � 3 (time:
baseline, anticipatory, postconsumption) interaction was not sig-
nificant nor was there a significant between-subjects effect of
restrained eating.

Figure 4 provides a graphic representation of the effects of
shake label on ghrelin as a function of mindset. To understand
further the differences in ghrelin levels between the two types of
shakes at the anticipatory and postconsumption time points, the
interactions were decomposed by conducting separate analyses for
the anticipatory and postconsumption intervals. These analyses
suggest that the primary driver of the quadratic effect was the
response to consuming the shake rather than anticipation of it, that
is, the 2 (shake type: indulgent, sensi-shake) � 2 (time: anticipa-
tory, postprandial) effect was significant, F(1, 44) � 5.75, p � .02,
�2 � .12, whereas the 2 (shake type: indulgent, sensi-shake) � 2
(time: baseline, anticipatory) effect was not, F(1, 44) � 0.94, p �
.34, �2 � .02. For the measure of hunger, these analyses produced
no significant main or interaction effects as a function of shake,
time, or restrained eating.


When participants drank the indulgent shake, they had a signif-
icantly steeper decline in ghrelin than when they drank the sensible
shake. The observed pattern of ghrelin response is consistent with
what one might observe if participants actually consumed bever-
ages with differing caloric contents (i.e., high vs. low energy
intake; Taheri, Lin, Austin, Young, & Mignot, 2004). However, in
this case the distinctive ghrelin profiles were psychologically
mediated; they were dependent on the perceived expectancies of
the milkshakes’ nutritional contents as opposed to objective nutri-
tional differences.

That we obtained these results independent of the intrinsic
properties of food challenges the typical assumption with respect
to the physiology of food intake and, in so doing, may provide a
missing link in the inexact science of weight and metabolic main-
tenance. Although the caloric balance equation seems simple and
straightforward (Ayyad & Andersen, 2000), these findings suggest
that the psychological mindset of sensibility while eating may
actually dampen the effect of ghrelin. Although the effect of such
psychologically mediated differences on subsequent consumption
or long-term alterations in weight were not measured in this
particular study, future research on the impact of this phenomenon
on metabolic maintenance is warranted. Elevated ghrelin levels
can cause increased body weight and fat gain through increased
caloric consumption, decreased energy expenditure, and a shift
away from the metabolic utilization of adiposity as an energy
source (Murphy et al., 2006; Zigman & Elmquist, 2003). Ghrelin
antagonists produce the opposite effect: increasing energy expen-
diture, decreasing food intake, and producing long term fat reduc-
tion and weight loss (Castañeda et al., 2010). The relatively flat
ghrelin profiles in response to consuming the shake in a sensible
mindset may be placing participants in a psychologically challeng-
ing state marked by increased appetite and decreased metabolism.

1 Cummings (2006) suggested that weight had an impact on ghrelin.
However, when weight was entered as a covariate, the analyses remained
significant for both the overall effect, F(1, 42) � 4.59, p � .04, � � .10,
and the postconsumption effect, F(1, 42) � 5.19, p � .03, � � .11.

Figure 3. Differences in perceived healthiness as a function of shake
label. Error bars reflect standard errors of the mean.


This study did not find any significant differences with respect
to subjective hunger regardless of mindset after participants con-
sumed the milkshake. This result may have been a function of the
measurement timing (hunger levels were assessed 10 min prior to
ghrelin changes as opposed to simultaneously or subsequently), or
the manner in which hunger was measured (visual analogue scale).
Additional research endeavoring to understand better how varying
ghrelin levels are related to subjective hunger and subsequent
consumption would be useful.

Studies incorporating subsequent consumption would also be
important for placing these findings in the context of the literature
on restrained eating. Although restrained eating was not a signif-
icant moderator of the psychological mediated ghrelin response in
this study, a long line of research supports the fact that restrained
eaters respond differently to food and label cues as well as well as
to perceived intake than those who are not restraining their eating
(e.g., Herman & Polivy, 1984; Knight & Boland, 1989). It is
possible that important differences between restrained and nonre-
strained eaters may emerge in different variations of the test, in
studies that also assess subsequent consumption and counterregu-
latory eating, or in evaluating the extent to which this phenomenon
has meaningful implications in a more naturalistic progression (the
sensible label manipulation may have temporarily elicited the
mindset of restraint even in those individuals who do not consis-
tently report themselves as being restrained).

We altered food labels to isolate the effect of the mindset in
response to an experimental manipulation. In the real world, label
manipulation for other purposes is common. Companies supple-
ment mandated calorie labeling with health claims that stretch the
healthy or hedonic attributes of their product in an effort to
increase consumption. Furthermore, these claims are often inac-
curate and misleading (Hasler, 2008). A product may be labeled
“low-fat” (because it is lower in fat than a full fat option) but still
be a high-fat food. A food product might be a good source of fiber
but still have a sugar content that is exorbitantly high. This
juxtaposition of unhealthy nutrients with healthy proclamations
may be especially dangerous. Not only is the product itself un-
healthy, but the mindset of sensibility might correspond to an
inadequate suppression of ghrelin, regardless of the actual nutrient

Meaningful differences in ghrelin response that were indepen-
dent of changes in actual nutrients have important implications

given recent interest in exploring the physiological and pharma-
cological use of gut peptides as a means to manage weight (Baynes
et al., 2006; Zigman & Elmquist, 2006). We argue that, much like
placebo effects, alterations in mindset—what one believes and
expects to be eating— have the potential to elicit a seemingly
inappropriate sense of satiation. This is an intriguing addition to
the growing literature supporting the mindset’s pervasive, yet often
unexpected, influence on physiological states. Additional research
endeavoring to understand better how psychological factors influ-
ence the biological impact of food is particularly warranted. Per-
haps if we can begin to approach even the healthiest foods with a
mindset of indulgence, we will experience the physiological sat-
isfaction of having had our cake and eaten it too.


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Article Summary Paper Instructions (10 points possible)
Ryan J. Winter
Florida International University

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· The phrase “Running head” is at the top of the title page followed by a short title of your creation (no more than 50 characters) that is in ALL CAPS. This running head is left-justified (flush left on the page). Note that the “h” in head is all lower case! Look at the first page of these instructions, and you will see how to set up your Running head.
· There must be a page number on the title page that is right justified. It is included in the header
· Your paper title appears on the title page. This is usually 12 words or less, and the first letter of each word is capitalized. It should be descriptive of the paper (For this paper, you should use the title of the article you are critiquing. The paper title can be the same title as in the Running head or it can differ – your choice)
· Your name will appear on the title page
· Your institution will appear on the title page as well
· For all papers, make sure to double-space EVERYTHING and use Times New Roman font. This includes everything from the title page through the references.
· This is standard APA format. ALL of your future papers will include a similar title page

2. Summary of the Article: 1 ½ page minimum, 3 pages maximum – 8)

An article summary should briefly summarize, in your own words, the article research question and how it was addressed in the article. Below are some things to include in your summary.
· The summary itself will include the following: (Note – if the article involved more than one experiment, you can either choose to focus on one of the studies specifically or summarize the general design for all of the studies)
1. Description of the overall purpose of the study (this can be as little as one sentence, and no more than 2 sentences)
2. Type of study (Was it experimental or correlational? How do you know?)
3. Variables:
1. What were the independent and dependent variables? Be specific with these. Define the terms independent and dependent variable and make sure to identify how they are operationally defined in the article)
4. Participants:
1. How many were there? How were they recruited?
5. Method:
1. Was there random assignment to groups?
2. What did the participants do in the study?).
3. How was data collected (online, in person, archival data, etc.)
6. Note the findings (What were their results/findings?). Don’t include the statistical analyses that they did, instead, focus on the overall interpretation for these findings.

3. References – 1 page (.5 points)

· Provide the reference for this article in proper APA format (see the book Chapter 14 for appropriate referencing guidelines or the Chapter 14 powerpoint).
· If you cited other sources during either your summary, reference them as well (though you do not need to cite other sources in this assignment – this is merely optional IF you happen to bring in other sources). Formatting counts here, so make sure to italicize where appropriate and watch which words you are capitalizing!

4. Grammar and Writing Quality (1 point)

· Few psychology courses are as writing intensive as Research Methods (especially Research Methods Two next semester!). As such, I want to make sure that you develop writing skills early. This is something that needs special attention, so make sure to proofread your papers carefully.
· Avoid run-on sentences, sentence fragments, spelling errors, and grammar errors. Writing quality will become more important in future papers, but this is where you should start to hone your writing skills.
· We will give you feedback on your papers, but I recommend seeking some help from the FIU writing center to make sure your paper is clear, precise, and covers all needed material. I also recommend asking a few of your group members to read over your paper and make suggestions. You can do the same for them!

The key point is that your experimental paper should describe a “position” that you have taken with respect to the content of the article. Please note that you do not need to refer to any other sources other than the article on which you have chosen to write your paper. However, you are welcome to refer to additional sources if you choose.

Other guidelines:

1. 2). Page size is 8 1/2 X 11” with all 4 margins set one inch on all sides. You
use 12-point Times New Roman font (Note: these instructions are in 12 point Times New Roman font).
1. 3). As a general rule, ALL paragraphs and sentences are double spaced in APA papers. This includes the spacing in your Paper I: Article Summary Paper. It even includes the references, so make sure to double space EVERYTHING
1. 4). When summarizing the article in your own words, you need not continually cite the article throughout the rest of your critique. Nonetheless, you should follow proper referencing procedures, which means that:
2. If you are inserting a direct quote from any source, it must be enclosed in quotations and followed by a parenthetical reference to the source. “Let’s say I am directly quoting this current sentence and the next. I would then cite it with the author name, date of publication, and the page number for the direct quote” (Winter, 2013, p . 4).
0. Note: We will deduct points if you quote more than once per page, so keep quotes to a minimum. Paraphrase instead, but make sure you still give the original author credit for the material by citing him or using the author’s name (“In this article, Smith noted that …” or “In this article, the authors noted that…”)
2. If you choose to reference any source other than your chosen article, it must be listed in a reference list.
1. 5). PLEASE use a spell checker to avoid unnecessary errors. Proofread everything you write. I actually recommend reading some sentences aloud to see if they flow well, or getting family or friends to read your work. Writing quality will become more important in future papers, so you should start working on that now!


1. If you have any questions about the articles, your ideas, or your writing, please ask. Although we won’t be able to review entire drafts of papers before they are handed in, we are very willing to discuss problems, concerns or issues that you might have.

Purpose of the Summary Paper
1). Psychological Purpose
This paper serves several purposes, the first of which is helping you gain insight into research papers in psychology. As this may be your first time reading and writing papers in psychology, one goal of Paper I is to give you insight into what goes into such papers. This paper will help you learn about the various sections of an empirical research report by reading at least one peer-reviewed articles (articles that have a Title Page, Abstract, Literature Review, Methods Section, Results Section, and References Page). This paper will also give you some insights into how the results sections are written in APA formatted research articles. Pay close attention to those sections, as throughout this course you’ll be writing up some results of your own! You’ll need this practice when you go to write your article critique paper this semester.
2). APA Formatting Purpose
The second purpose of the this paper is to teach you proper American Psychological Association (APA) formatting. In the instructions below, I tell you how to format your paper using APA style. There are a lot of very specific requirements in APA papers, so pay attention to the instructions below as well as Chapter 14 in your textbook! I highly recommend using the Paper I Checklist before submitting your paper, as it will help walk you through the picky nuances of APA formatting.
3). Writing Purpose
Finally, this paper is intended to help you grow as a writer. Few psychology classes give you the chance to write papers and receive feedback on your work. This class will! We will give you feedback on this paper in terms of content, spelling, and grammar.

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