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At least 6 pages and use the  MLA citation
Length: 2000-2500 words (5-7 pages)

Research Requirements (see below)
Essay 2: Violent Borders

Mode of Writing: Argumentation/Problem-Solution Research Paper

Problem-Solution Essays 
Problem-solution essays first (1) articulate the scope of an important problem while creating an argument for it to be immediately addressed, and second (2) articulate a solution in depth, laying out how the solution would work in a step-by-step fashion while addressing any objections to the parts of your solution.

Reece Jones’ book Violent Borders situates itself on the structural inequalities necessary to creating and maintaining national borders, and the underlining goal of global equality to access resources and opportunities is a driving focus for his argument. In the conclusion to Violent Borders, Reece Jones outlines three long-term solution areas that would work to relieve global inequality with respect to accessing resources and opportunities, but he does not offer much insight as to the details of these ambitious solutions nor how they could be instituted on a global level. These solutions are categorized as:
1. Free movement between states
2. Global rules for working conditions
3. Global rules for environmental protection and limits on private property.
Jones’ explanation of these “solution categories” are prefaced with the statement: “incremental changes can often be more effective and more achievable than holding out hope for a completely different world.” This problem-solution research paper asks you to propose what you believe to be the most pressing and important “incremental change” that needs to occur.

Essay Prompt 
A problem-solution paper basically asks you to articulate a complex problem and propose and explain an effective solution. Therefore, your task is:
1. to articulate what you believe to be the most pressing problem addressed in Violent Borders, provide an explanation of how this problem came about, and create an argument for it to be addressed immediately; and
2. to articulate a solution for the problem, explain how the solution will work (considering both short term and long-term goals), and explain why your solution is better than other solutions. Keep in mind that our focus is on “incremental change.” We should not presume that there is any one “ideal” solution; but we can presume that there is a “next-step” that is more effective than others.

Source Requirements
1. Accurately represent and thoughtfully discuss main points and information from Violent Borders by Reece Jones
2. Integrate academic research using at least two sources from the LPC databases (JSTOR, Academic Search Ultimate, (e)books) and at least one additional source (from the LPC databases, government or organization websites, videos, interviews, or other online sources)
3. Apply MLA formatting standards

Students will be evaluated on their ability to thoughtfully engage with the textual material and issues presented in Violent Borders; to seek out pertinent information and quotes from the book and from credible research sources; and to compose an organized essay that accurately articulates the scope of the problem and offers a well-thought-out solution. In so doing, students will be evaluated on their ability to:
1. sift through detailed factual material and separate relevant from irrelevant facts
2. assess the consistency and reliability of facts, and determine the need for and source of additional facts
3. analyze the legal rules and principles applicable to a problem and formulate theories from facts (that may be only partly known and are being developed);
4. recognize and resolve ethical issues arising in practical situations;
5. apply problem solving skills to diagnose a problem, generate alternative solutions, and develop a plan
6. communicate effectively in writing to a general audience
7. document sources correctly using MLA formatting standards

Original Essay Titles
Now that you have completed your draft, make sure that you title your essay in a way that is specific to your take on the topic or issue. Remember, this is your essay, and no one else’s. You should avoid titles such as “Essay 2” or “Violent Borders” as these are generic titles related to your paper, but not your own title related to the point of your essay. Instead, take a look at your thesis statement and topic sentences to reveal your attitude and take on the topic, and craft your title to reflect your ideas. Be creative and have fun with creating your essay title! 

A Note on MLA In-text Citations
In-text Citation Basics
Citing your work in your paper is simple for most sources. All you need to do is provide quotation marks for passages you use that are word-for-word and indicate the author’s name and the page number. (It is also a good idea to include the title or professional description of the author in order to signal the credibility of the source.) If you paraphrase information, you do not need quotation marks but you still need to reference the author and page number in each sentence. Here are some examples:
· Political geographer Reece Jones reveals, “As late as 1990, only fifteen countries had walls or fences on their borders. At the beginning of 2016, almost seventy did” (55).
· There were just fifteen countries with border barriers in 1990; by 2016, that number grew to almost seventy (Jones 55). 
You should strive to use a mix of quoting and paraphrasing in your paper. Use quoting when you want the source credibility and passage to stand out to the reader; use paraphrase when you simply want to relate some quick information. Of course, there will be times that you will use both paraphrase and quoting with the same passage, paraphrasing some information for context to set up the passage you want to quote; this strategy often helps writers to avoid quotes that are too lengthy. Also, you may also find yourself quoting short phrases within your sentence for “effect” or simply to help the paraphrase move along more swiftly.  
That’s the basics. Below addresses some questions that you will likely run in to. If you have further questions, post them in the Q&A Discussion board, and I’ll get back to you. 

What if there is no author?
Remember, the basic function of an in-text citation is to communicate how the source is listed in the Works Cited page. Usually, the citation begins with the last name of the author, but when there is no author, the citation will begin with the title of the source. This means that you need to reference the title of the source (or at least the first word of it so that it is easy for the reader to find in your Works Cited page). Below is an example in-text citation for a source without an author, along with the corresponding MLA citation that you would see in the works cited page:
· The Mexican government should offer asylum seekers “access to work, health care, and education” as stated in the “Remain in Mexico” agreement,  but the reality is that asylum seekers in Mexico “are not given photo ID cards confirming that status” and employers and public officials turn them away, claiming that “they have never heard of Remain in Mexico or do not understand the legal status it confers” (“Mexico”). 
· “Mexico: Abuses Against Asylum Seekers at US Border.” Human Rights Watch, 5 March 2021, (Links to an external site.)

What if there are no page numbers? 
If there are no page numbers for an article then you do no need to put any. This is common for online articles found through a general internet search, but most articles from the academic databases will have page numbers. However, ebooks work a little different. If there are no page numbers for your ebook, you should cite the location number. Here’s an example:
· Political geographer Reece Jones reveals, “As late as 1990, only fifteen countries had walls or fences on their borders. At the beginning of 2016, almost seventy did” (Loc. 2903). 
· There were just fifteen countries with border barriers in 1990; by 2016, that number grew to almost seventy (Jones Loc. 2903). 
However, if location numbers are different from device to device, or if there are neither location or page numbers, you should then simply reference the chapter number. Here’s an example:
· Political geographer Reece Jones reveals, “As late as 1990, only fifteen countries had walls or fences on their borders. At the beginning of 2016, almost seventy did” (Ch. 4).
· There were just fifteen countries with border barriers in 1990; by 2016, that number grew to almost seventy (Jones Ch. 4). 



Submission date: 28-Mar-2021 02:15PM (UTC+0800)
Submission ID: 1544151494
File name: 1680560677576945855.docx (17.76K)
Word count: 1368
Character count: 8142





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Submitted to Chabot-Las Positas CCD
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Submitted to Aspen University
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