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5.1 Discussion: Masculinity vs. Femininity Societies (Part B)

 
Getting Started
Note: This is Part B of a two-week discussion forum. In the previous workshop, you made an initial post; in this workshop, you will respond to the posts of your classmates and will post a summary of your new learning. You and your classmates must pace yourselves to complete the discussion fully within the time allotted.
In the video you will watch for this discussion, Hofstede identifies masculine societies as those in which emotional gender roles between men and women are distinct. Cultures characterized as being feminine are those in which the gender roles are not as distinct, often overlapping (10 minutes with, 2014). In this discussion, you will examine this cultural dimension in more depth, while having the opportunity to reflect on your personal views relative to masculine and feminine traits.
Reference
10 minutes with. (2014, November 18). 10 minutes with…Geert Hofstede on masculinity vs. femininity 10112014 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Pyr-XKQG2CM
Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

Examine theoretical concepts in the exploration of business globalization and culture.
Analyze the impact of cultural differences on business decision making and strategic planning.
Articulate the importance of integrating a Christian worldview with global business practice.

Resources

Video: 10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Masculinity vs. Femininity
File: Masculinity vs. Femininity
Article: ‘Christian Worldview’ Drives Hungary’s Stunningly Successful Pro-Family Policies: Minister for Family

Instructions

Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Review the video “10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Masculinity vs. Femininity.” 

Review the PowerPoint on Masculinity vs. Femininity. 
Review ‘Christian Worldview’ Drives Hungary’s Stunningly Successful Pro-Family Policies: Minister for Family.
By the end of this workshop, read and critically respond to at least two of your classmates.

Consider their groupings of masculine and feminine traits as compared to your own.
Explore differences in perspective and ask clarifying questions of your classmates.
Evaluate the descriptions, examples, and characterizations provided in the posts of your classmates related to the application of a Christian worldview to global business.
Offer alternate perspectives and provide additional clarifying commentary to add to the discussion.

Each response should be at least 150 words. 

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5.2 Discussion: Assess Your Cultural Profile (Part B)
 

 
Getting Started
Note: This is Part B of a two-week discussion forum. In the previous workshop, you made an initial post; in this workshop, you will respond to the posts of your classmates and will post a summary of your new learning. You and your classmates must pace yourselves to complete the discussion fully within the time allotted.
As a global manager, it is vital to understanding culture and being able to work with diverse groups of people effectively.  Cultural Mapping outcomes can be harnessed and directed to create sustainable futures. In this workshop, you will demonstrate your global know-how and assess your mind frame.
Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

Analyze the impact of cultural differences on business decision making and strategic planning.
Articulate the importance of integrating a Christian worldview with global business practice.

Resources

Video: The Culture Map
Video: How to Download and Install Snipping Tool++
Article: Assess Your Cultural Profile
Website: What’s Your Cultural Profile?
Bible

Instructions

Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Review the video “The Culture Map” by Erin Meyer.  https://hbr.org/2014/08/assess-your-cultural-profile
Review the article “Assess Your Cultural Profile” by David Champion.  https://globalleadership.org/videos/leading-others/the-culture-map-2
Review your Cultural Profile assessment.  
By the end of this workshop, read and critically respond to at least two of your classmates.

Consider comparing and contrasting your assessment to your classmate’s assessments.

Each response should be at least 150 words.

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5.3 Discussion: Multicultural Competence (Part A)

 
Getting Started
This is a two-week discussion. Your initial post is due by the end of Workshop Five. You will then engage in dialogue with your classmates in at least three discussion threads (one of which is your initial post) and will post a summary of your new knowledge for each of the three discussion threads. While your interactions are not due until the end of Workshop Six, you should be prepared to engage in the discussion throughout both workshops.
In the article you will read for this assignment, Huang identifies empathy, expertise, and cultural competence as key tenets for maintaining harmony in a multicultural environment. Further, effective multicultural management overcomes the unique cultural backgrounds and differences of team members to promote a productive team environment (Huang, 2015). In this discussion, you will have the opportunity to examine in detail the value of multicultural competence as a management skill.  
Reference
Huang, J. (2015). The challenge of multicultural management in global projects [Conference presentation]. 29th World Congress International Project Management Association, Westin Playa Bonita, Panama. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.06.164 
Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

Defend multicultural competency as a necessary skill for managerial success. 

Resources

Video: 10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on the Importance of an International Perspective
File: The Importance of an International Perspective
Article: The Challenge of Multicultural Management in Global Projects
Webpage: Nokia: Our offices
Article: Why #hashtags rule and how to use them properly

Instructions

Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Review the video “10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on the Importance of an International Perspective.”

Examine the PowerPoint The Importance of an International Perspective.
Read “The Challenge of Multicultural Management in Global Projects.”  https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82155216.pdf  
Review the webpage “Nokia: Our offices.”    https://www.nokia.com/contact-us/offices/  
Read “Why #hashtags rule and how to use them properly”.   https://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/how-to/marketing/2014/07/why-hashtags-rule-and-how-to-use-them-properly.html
Navigate to the discussion below and post a substantive response in support of multicultural competence as a necessary management skill.

In your initial post, be sure to present your most compelling arguments for multicultural competence as a necessary management skill.
Be sure to provide research to support your position.

Select a global location for Nokia Corporation outside of North America.

Create a multicultural competent hashtag for the Nokia global location you chose and explains its meaning and significance. 

Your initial response should:

Be 200–300 words in length.
Include a minimum of two properly cited references from academic sources. For questions on APA style, go to OCLS APA Writing Style Guides.

Your initial response is due by the end of Workshop Five.
You will respond to your classmates in the 6.1 Discussion: Multicultural Competence (Part B).

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5.4 Discussion: Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation (Part A)

 
Getting Started
This is a two-week discussion. Your initial post is due by the end of Workshop Five. You will then engage in dialogue with your classmates in at least three discussion threads (one of which is your initial post) and will post a summary of your new knowledge for each of the three discussion threads. While your interactions are not due until the end of Workshop Six, you should be prepared to engage in the discussion throughout both workshops.
A global leader is faced with choices on a daily basis, which determine the outcome of their decisions. In a decision-making process, a global leader can either utilize long term orientation, which is the fostering in a society of pragmatic virtues oriented to future rewards in particular perseverance, thrift, and adapting to changing circumstances, or short term orientation, which stands for fostering in a society of virtues related to the past and present (10 minutes with, 2015). 
Reference
10 minutes with. (2015, March 7). 10 minutes with Geert Hofstede on long versus short term orientation 01032015 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8ygYIGsIQ4&feature=emb_title
Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

Articulate the importance of integrating a Christian worldview with global business practice.
Analyze the impact of cultural differences on business decision making and strategic planning.

Resources

Video: 10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Long versus Short Term Orientation
Video: Alexandre Havard on Virtuous Leadership
Video How to Identify a Good Leader- 5 minutes with Prof. Alexandre Havard
Website: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: Understanding different countries.
File: Hofstede on Long versus Short Term Orientation

Background Information
PRA
Characteristics
Tips
Long-Term Orientation

People often wonder how to know what is true. For example, questions like “What?” and “How?” are asked more than “Why?”
Thrift and education are seen as positive values.
Modesty.
Virtues and obligations are emphasized.
Behave in a modest way.
Avoid talking too much about yourself.
People are more willing to compromise, yet this may not always be clear to outsiders; this is certainly so in a culture that also scores high on PDI.

Short-Term Orientation

People often want to know “Why?”
Strong convictions.
As people tend to oversell themselves, others will assess their assertions critically.
Values and rights are emphasized.

Sell yourself to be taken seriously.
People are less willing to compromise as this would be seen as weakness.
Flattery empowers.

Retrieved from: Mind Tools. (n.d.). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: Understanding different countries. https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm

Instructions

Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
Watch the following videos:

“10 Minutes with Geert Hofstede on Long versus Short Term Orientation”

“Alexandre Havard on Virtuous Leadership”

“How to Identify a Good Leader – 5 minutes with Prof. Alexandre Havard”

Review the Hofstede on Long versus Short Term Orientation PowerPoint and the chart illustrated in the “Background Information” section above.
Navigate to the discussion below and post a substantive response to the following questions:

Discuss which of the two types of orientation, “long term vs. short term,” is most likely to be adopted by a virtuous leader.
Provide an example of a virtuous organization that uses either of the two (long term or short term) orientation.
Share a Bible verse that helps support a virtuous leader and organization.

Your initial response should:

Be 200–300 words in length
Include a minimum of two properly cited references from academic sources. For questions on APA style, go to OCLS APA Writing Style Guides.

Your initial response is due by the end of Workshop Five.
You will respond to your classmates in the 6.2 Discussion: Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation (Part B).

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5.5 Assignment: #KimberlyClark Corporation

 
Getting Started
Hofstede’s long-term orientation describes how every society has to maintain some links with its past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies prioritize these two existential goals differently. In this assignment, you will examine a multinational corporation with global locations and analyze the long versus short term orientation of one site. You will conclude the assignment with developing a culturally competent business hashtag.
Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

Examine theoretical concepts of business globalization and culture.
Defend multicultural competency as a necessary skill for managerial success.
Analyze the impact of cultural differences on business decision making and strategic planning.

Resources

Webpage: Country Comparison Tool for Hofstede’s Dimensions
Webpage: Global Locations of Kimberly-Clark
Website: OCLS APA Writing Style Guides

Background Information
According to their website,
Kimberly-Clark Corporation was established in 1875 in Wisconsin, USA (current headquarters in Texas) and is now a global marketer of a wide range of family care, baby care, adult and feminine care, personal care and health care products for use in home, business, and industry. Today Kimberly-Clark and its well-known global brands are an indispensable part of life for people in more than 175 countries. Every day, nearly a quarter of the world’s population trust Kimberly-Clark brands to enhance their health, hygiene and wellbeing. This trust has led to Kimberly-Clark brands holding the No. 1 or No. 2 share position in more than 80 countries. (Kimberly-Clark, n.d.).
Kimberly-Clark has manufacturing operations in 40 countries, and Kimberly-Clark products are sold in more than 175 countries worldwide. With well-known and trusted brands (such as Kleenex, Scott, and Huggies), their 57,000 global employees are also changing the world for the better, generously giving back to communities and causes around the globe.
Reference
Kimberly-Clark. (n.d.). Kimberly-Clark corporation: A proud history. http://www.kimberly-clark.com.au/en/our-company/history/

Instructions

Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
View the webpage “Global Locations” of Kimberly-Clark.  https://www.kimberly-clark.com/en/locations
Select a global location for Kimberly-Clark Corporation outside of North America.
Use Country Comparison Tool for Hofstede’s Dimensions to review a comparison of the United States and the global location you selected.  https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/
Write a five-page paper utilizing APA format. For questions on APA style, go to OCLS APA Writing Style Guides.
Include the following information in your paper:

Describe Kimberly-Clark Corporation in the country you selected. 
Explain two key characteristics of doing business in the country you selected.
Include a country comparison between the United States and the country you selected. 

How might knowing the comparison of long- and short-term orientation influence a global manager’s decision making?
Describe the culture’s management styles in the country you selected. Has Kimberly-Clark Corporation incorporated these styles within the global location you chose? If so, explain using evidence from research. If not, what suggestions would you give a manager at the selected location to help them succeed?
What managerial challenges might arise when integrating a Christian worldview at Kimberly-Clark Corporation in the global location you chose?

Include a minimum of five properly cited research sources.
Submit your APA-formatted paper by the end of this workshop.

Trait

Masculine

Feminine

Build relationships based on trust

x

Coach and mentor others

x

Culturally competent

x

Strategic thinker

x

High level of confidence

x

Problem-solver

x

Risk-taker

x

 
I think there is a lot of things in current day that make masculine and feminine trails more subjective.  Generally, I see things that are generally more competitive as being masculine traits such as strategic thinking, a high level of confidence, problem solving skills, and risk taking.  I see these as more individualistic with less concern for the care of others.
                I see building of relationships based on trust, coaching and mentoring others, and being culturally competent as more feminine traits.  I believe these are more focused on collectivism and care or concern for others.  Although, I do feel that many of these trails are quickly becoming more universal traits for people. 
                Hungary is a very masculine society that scored 88 on the Masculinity Index (Hofstede, 2010).  With such a masculine society, the Hungarian government has been focusing on shifting the country to have more feminine societal traits including more equal rights for women and increase the number of women in the workforce.  I have been able to see this change through my meetings in Hungary meeting with the Ministry of Defense (MOD).  There continues to be a greater presence of women in the Hungarian Military as well as an increasing number of women working.  The Family Protection Action Plan and the Hungarian Family Act are rooted in Hungary’s Christian heritage and help many people in need (Dail, 2019). 
 
References
Dail, B. (2019). ‘Christian worldview’ drives Hungary’s stunningly successful pro-family policies: Minister for family. 
https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/christian-worldview-driveshungarys-stunningly-successful-pro-family-policies-minister-for-family

Trait

Masculine

Feminine

Build relationships based on trust

 

X

Coach and mentor others

 X

Culturally competent

 

X

Strategic thinker

X

 

High level of confidence

X

 

Problem-solver

 X

 

Risk-taker

 X

 

 
In my perspective, feminine traits center around relationship-building, coaching and mentoring others (motherly instinct, in my view), and being aware of the culture you are in and having that competence to understand how to receive those cues. I feel like these cues vary across cultures and by norms in different countries. Some of these could also blur both lines, I think in the U.S. that being a risk-taker can be a trait found in both masculinity and femininity based on how equality is really being focused on currently.
For the masculine features, I believe, strategic thinking, having high levels of confidence, being a problem-solver, and a risk taker speak to me the most from my life experiences. I am a very strategic, process-oriented individual. Everything I do has to be for a reason, I don’t just take chances to take them often. This could be detrimental to how productive I can be as I will over-assess (problem-solve) everything I do. “These traits do not have to do with Male v. female roles” (Hofstede, 2014).
Hungrarians are a “family-oriented, respect traditional values and want to live in peace and security” (Dail, B., 2019). Spillover effects from the Christian worldview that could have implications are that trade could be limited if they don’t believe in the other countries’ religious values. However, “the Hungarian government respects the separation of church and state” (Dail, B., 2019)
 
References
 
Dail, B. A. (2019, May 22). ‘Christian worldview’ drives Hungary’s stunningly successful pro-family policies: Minister for family. In Life Site News. Retrieved from https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/christian-worldview-driveshungarys-stunningly-successful-pro-family-policies-minister-for-family
10 minutes with. (2014, November 18). 10 minutes with…Geert Hofstede on masculinity versus femininity 10112014 [Video]. YouTube. 

Masculinity/Femininity in 10 minutes
Geert Hofstede
August 2014

Origin of the terms “masculinity” and “femininity”
The adjectives “masculine” and “feminine” are latinized versions of “male” and “female”, used for “man-like” and “woman-like”
Since the 1930s, anthropologists have studied the variety of role divisions between the genders in different societies
Hofstede borrowed “masculinity versus femininity” from social anthropology
Masculinity versus Femininity is the only of his dimensions of societal differences for which scores depend on gender

Masculinity/Femininity as a societal culture dimension
Masculinity: A society in which emotional gender roles are distinct: men should be assertive, tough and focused on material success, women on the quality of life
Femininity: A society in which emotional gender roles overlap: both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and focused on the quality of life

Feminine societies
Balance family and work
Father and mother should both deal with facts and feelings
Jealousy of high-flyers (janteloven)
Sympathy for the weak
Boys and girls may cry but neither should fight
Religion focuses on fellow human beings
Sex is a way of relating
Masculine societies
Work prevails over family
Father should deal with facts, mother with feelings
Admiration for the strong
Disdain of the weak
Girls cry, boys don’t; boys fight, girls shouldn’t 
Religion focuses on powerful God or gods 
Sex is a way of performing

4

Measuring the position of a society on the Mas/Fem dimension
A society’s position between masculinity and femininity can only be measured relative to other societies
This position is expressed in a Masculinity Index score (MAS)
MAS values have been plotted on a scale from 0 to 100; scores close to 0 stand for the most feminine, scores close to 100 for the most masculine society

Some Masculinity (MAS) scores, out of 76
High
95 Japan
70 Italy
69 Mexico
66 China
66 Britain
66 Germany
62 USA
Low
53 Arab ctrs
43 France
36 Russia
34 Thailand
21 Costa Rica
16 Denmark
14 Netherlands

Some examples of what these MAS scores correlate with
Feminine societies
Fewer functional illiterates
Fewer people living in poverty
More aid to poorer countries
Poverty blamed on bad luck
Both genders shop for food
More leisure, longer vacations
Social media used for rapport building

Masculine societies
More functional illiterates
More people living in poverty
Less aid to poorer countries
Poverty blamed on laziness
Women are food shoppers
Salary preferred over leisure
Social media used for fact gathering

Do MAS scores change over time ?
Mas/Fem values are transferred to the children in the family, with father and mother as role models
Like for the other dimensions, country differences expressed in MAS scores tend to be rooted in history
The data base used for comparing two generations 30 years apart did not include questions for the Mas/Fem dimension
Their questionnaire “made in USA” did not contain values related to the feminine pole of the dimension
In the USA, the word “femininity” is a taboo – a strong value
Mas/Fem is likely to be as stable as the other dimensions

My Cultural Profile

Robert Moffitt

Communicating & Evaluating

Persuading & Leading

Deciding & Trusting

Disagreeing & Scheduling

Cultural Profile
MGMT 528 Global Management
Derek Pieper

Communicating/evaluating

I would say my communication style is pretty accurate as well. I do a combination of both low/high-context culture measures in my delivery.
On the evaluating measure it is pretty accurate to how I give feedback. I am pretty honest when I deliver feedback as it is how I get the most out of my team, I utilize positives but always give them challenges or items to improve upon.

Persuading/Deciding

Persuasion is probably my weakest area as a manager. I could definitely work on improving my observations and how I “sell” them to my team.
My score on deciding is likely because I work for a corporation and we have to ”comply” with their rules and regulations where top-down decisions are the norm and where field operators have little to no say in operational enhancements. The score is reflective of this, even though I am a pretty independent decision-maker.

Trusting/Disagreeing

Trust for me is more of a relationship-based measure. I’m not sure why it didn’t come in on my screenshot. Relationship-building is big to me when building a team. That has come to bite me in the past, but for the most part keeps my team stable.
In disagreeing I live by the quote “pick your battles”. If I think I can have a fighter’s chance at getting something to change I will disagree, however, sometimes it is just better to save your breath and time. If it is going to impact my business then I will fight for what I feel is best for the operation.

Leading/Scheduling

I believe my leading score is pretty accurate. I am very open in my belief that a title is not important until there are issues. Then it is who does the responsibility fall to. I do not look at my team as #1,#2,#3, etc. I look at us as a management “team”. The best teams come together to get the best results they can by optimizing their team to do their best by giving them the items they need to succeed.
Scheduling, for this metric, is pretty accurate. I am very flexible. I don’t believe in leading with an iron fist for clocking in at 8:01 as opposed to 8:00. They will still get the same amount of work done regardless of the difference that minute makes.

powerpoint attached. assignment 4.4

I was surprised by some of the results of my cultural profile assessment. With disagreement, I would generally see myself as somewhat more confrontational than someone who avoids confrontation. I think that open honest feedback has a time and place. I do agree that in group settings with people that I would consider higher hierarchical positions than me, I tend not to voice openly in front of others. However, I will discuss openly behind closed doors. Also, with scheduling I think I see myself as more linear than flexible. I am someone who lives by “early is on time and on time is late.” When it comes to work, I generally like my schedule planned out and to stay prompt.

Proverbs 3:5-6 states to trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight. To me, this is saying to completely trust in God and his plan. He will guide “you” to where he wants you to be and do what he has planned for you. When you don’t trust completely, your path will wind and wander, but following him and trusting him completely will take you where He wants you to go.

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powerpoint attached. 4.4 Culture Assessment.pptx

The two areas I would improve are persuading and deciding. Decision-making for me has to be top-down because I work for a corporation who has to appease investors and board members. So any decision they make about products or financial management has to have a favorable result or new leaders will be put in place to get the desired results. Persuasion for me starts internally. If I do not believe in a change or process, it will come across that way to my team. If I think something will work I can sell it OK, I have mixed results due to different managers willingness to be open to change. Getting buy in is a huge challenge for me because you have to get the buy in from the complete team so you have to know how to approach it with each person individually while keeping the team aspect in the purview.

Proverbs 3:5-6 states, “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight” (biblegateway.com, n.d.). By letting the Lord take your hand and lead, this for me speaks to relationship-based trust. Which is the way I lead. Forming relationships with my team is paramount to being able to keep team members energized about the job they are performing.

References

Meyer, E. (2014, August 14). What’s your Cultural Profile?. In Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2014/08/whats-your-cultural-profile

Proverbs 3:5-6. (n.d.). In Bible Gateway. Retrieved from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Proverbs+3%3A5-6&version=NIV

Developing an international perspective
Geert Hofstede
January 2015

Basics for effectively cooperating with people in and from other nations:
(1) speaking or having learned a shared language
(2) acting according to shared rules and standards

Everybody speaks and acts with an accent
When speaking a language, you and I each speak it each with our own local accent, acquired when and where we grew up
Equally true but less evident: we also think, feel and act with local “accents”, acquired when and where we grew up. We call this our national culture.

Gaining an international perspective
Becoming conscious of our own culture amidst the variety of cultures we may meet in people from elsewhere
There is no substitute for personal international experience
We can acquire knowledge about differences in national cultures in our present day world
We should develop skills for “translating” between cultures

When in another culture, in a way we become children again

Basics of national culture differences
All countries in the world share the same basic problems, but each national society has over time developed its own answers
Six basic problems for each society (outcome of my research):
How much (in)equality should there be among us?
How afraid are we of unknown people, ideas and objects?
How dependent are we on our (extended) family?
How should a man feel, how a woman?
Do we focus on the future, the present or the past?
May we have fun or is life a serious matter?
These can be seen as six different and separate dimensions of national cultures

Long- versus Short-Term Orientation in 10 minutes
Geert Hofstede
January 2015

Origin of the term “long- versus short-term orientation”
Coined by Hofstede in 1991 for a fifth dimension of differences between national societies
Based on answers of student samples from 23 societies around 1985 to the Chinese Value Survey (CVS), developed by Michael H. Bond from suggestions by Chinese scholars
Replicated and extended in 2010 by Michael Minkov based on 1995-2004 World Values Survey (WVS) data from representative samples of the population in 93 societies

Long/Short Term Orientation as a societal culture dimension
Long-Term Orientation stands for the fostering in a society of pragmatic virtues oriented to future rewards, in particular perseverance, thrift, and adapting to changing circumstances
Its opposite pole, Short-Term Orientation, stands for the fostering in a society of virtues related to the past and the present, such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of face, and fulfilling social obligations
3

Long-Term Oriented societies
Good and evil are relative
Which norms apply depends on the situation
The superior person adapts to the circumstances
We should be humble about ourselves
We want to learn from other countries
Traditions can be changed
Opposing truths can be integrated
Common sense and choosing the middle way

Short-Term Oriented societies
Good and evil are absolute
Fixed norms apply always, whatever the circumstances
The superior person is always the same
We seek positive information about ourselves
We are proud of our own country
Traditions are sacrosanct
Truth A always excludes its opposite B
Religious and ideological fundamentalisms

4

How are long- and short term orientation measured?
There is no absolute standard for L/S orientation
What we can measure is differences between societies
The position of societies relative to each other is expressed in a Long-Term Orientation Index score (LTO)
LTO values have been plotted on a scale from 0 to 100; scores close to 0 stand for a shorter, scores close to 100 for a longer term orientation

Some Long Term Orientation (LTO) scores, out of 93
High
88 Japan
87 China
83 Germany
81 Russia
67 Netherlands
63 France
61 Italy
53 Sweden
Low
51 Britain
51 India
38 Israel
26 U.S.A.
24 Mexico
21 Australia
13 Nigeria
07 Egypt

Some examples of what these LTO scores correlate with
Long Term Oriented societies
Secondary school students perform well at mathematics
Secondary school students underrate own math results
Large savings quote, funds available for investment
Companies seek market share, long-term profits
Investors prefer family business and real estate
In poor countries, faster economic growth

Short Term Oriented societies
Secondary school students perform poorly at mathematics
Secondary school students overrate own math results
Small savings quote, little money for investment
Companies report quarterly results, stress bottom line
Investors prefer shares and mutual funds
In poor countries, slower economic growth

Don’t the LTO scores change over time ?
The scores reflect values transferred from parents to children; these values were already found in 15-year olds; values acquired in childhood rarely change in later life
Research by Sjoerd Beugelsdijk comparing answers to the same questions by two successive generations 30 years apart showed no worldwide shift and no changes in the position of countries
Global information systems do affect private habits and business practices, but the way they do so varies between societies according to pre-existing and stable societal values

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