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Use the link below to view review requirements.…(Must be 200 words each for each example)EXAMPLE NUMBER ONE: During the Dark Ages the only real ‘professional’ musicians worked for the church, and of the music they produced that survived the composers of it are unknown (anonymous). The monophonic plainchant they wrote served a specific function, and once it was officially authorized became known as Gregorian chant (music of the early western ‘Roman’ church) after Pope Gregory I (patron saint of music). This music was seen as an ‘enhancement’ of the prayers, has a quality of being ‘otherworldly’ because of the freedom from a strict sense of a beat and the use of church modes, as well as inspiring serenity because of the lack of showiness. This example provides a graphic overlay of the ancient notation through much of the example, and you will notice is considered a responsorial performance as at one point an individual rather than the group sings a portion of the chant. Would you consider this chant syllabic (one note per syllable) or melismatic (multiple notes per syllable)?When you get to around 2:00 in, you will begin hearing examples of organum. Summarize this practice as described in the video & compare it with the previous example. Organum begins in the final century or two of the Dark Ages, and leaves a lasting impact on the musical style of the west. In the beginning organum was relatively simple with its’ larger hollow-sounding open intervals, but as you will hear in a later example from the Notre Dame School (and mentioned briefly about 4:30 in this video) organum gets so complex that the cantus firmus (original chant on which organum is based) becomes almost unrecognizable. I say ‘almost’ because until the Renaissance western church music always had to be based on a Gregorian Chant.EXAMPLE NUMBER TWO: The abbess and mystic Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) is considered the first composer in Western Europe that a collection of original works can be attributed to. She left behind more works than anyone to come over the next 2 centuries, and this accomplishment is made all the more remarkable not only because she did not consider herself a composer, but also because she was a woman living in such a strongly male dominated society. She is most remembered for writing morality plays during the last phase of Gregorian chant. Her music is incredibly expressive in comparison to earlier examples as a result of greater performance freedom influenced by organum (as well as being permitted to use instrumental drones outside the church to accompany these works). So how does this example compare to plainchant? What similar practices are exhibited from organum as described in the earlier example?EXAMPLE NUMBER THREE: The estampie is a spirited dance of the late Middle Ages. As a dance estampies are of course secular and instrumental only. In this anonymous example notice the the repeating theme as well as the period instruments (portative organ, drum, recorder, vihuela, vielle & lute).Though Hildegard wrote earlier sacred musical plays, “The Play of Robin and Marion” by Adam de la Halle (1237-1288) written in 1282 is considered the first secular musical play. It is the story of a shepherdess named Marion, her lover Robin, their friends, and the events of their day surrounding Marion being kidnapped and resisting the sexual advances of a scoundrel knight. In addition to preserving musical practices of the day, this work is important as it also preserves the literature and actual concerns of daily life for people in this era. A ‘canso’, or Medieval dance song, is essentially an estampie with words. This example is a canso from the beginning of de la Halle’s play where the singing narrator begins telling the story that will be ultimately acted out.

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