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Please answer the following prompts to receive full credit for this assignment. You must answer in complete sentences. Your assignment submission must be a total of at least 450 words. Please do this assignment in paragraph format. Your paragraphs do not have to be indented, but the flow of your response must make logical sense.This assignment must meet ALL minimum requirements (including word count) and be completed. You may use information we have covered or read ahead in your textbook. You may also use outside sources, but you MUST include your sources’ URLs.Sales Promotion AssignmentYou have a budget of $20,000 to help your client spend over a month’s time to publicize some aspect of their business. You determine the retail business and its demographic target. Your job is to make the best use of your client’s money in a multi-media buy.Research the media in the market of the business, to include radio & TV, cable, newspaper, magazine, billboards, and social media. Find out the cost of running ads with them.Create a plan to use the $20K to contact the maximum number of potential customers based on the target demographics of the retain business and the local media.
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Management of Electronic and
Digital Media
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From the Cengage Series in Communication Arts
General Mass Communication
Belmas/Shepard/Overbeck, Major Principles of Media Law, 2016 Edition
Biagi, Media/Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media, Twelfth Edition
Fellow, American Media History, Third Edition
Lester, Visual Communication: Images with Messages, Sixth Edition
Straubhaar/LaRose/Davenport, Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture,
and Technology, Ninth Edition
Zelezny, Cases in Communications Law, Sixth Edition
Zelezny, Communications Law: Liberties, Restraints, and the Modern Media,
Sixth Edition
Journalism
Bowles/Borden, Creative Editing, Sixth Edition
Davis/Davis, Cengage Advantage Books: Think Like an Editor:
50 Strategies for the Print and Digital World, Second Edition
Hilliard, Writing for Television, Radio, and New Media,
Eleventh Edition
Kessler/McDonald, When Words Collide: A Media Writer’s Guide
to Grammar and Style, Ninth Edition
Rich, Writing and Reporting News: A Coaching Method,
Eighth Edition
Public Relations and Advertising
Diggs-Brown, The PR Styleguide: Formats for Public Relations
Practice, Third Edition
Drewniany/Jewler, Creative Strategy in Advertising, Eleventh Edition
Hendrix/Hayes/Kumar, Public Relations Cases, Ninth Edition
Newsom/Haynes, Public Relations Writing: Strategies and Structures,
Eleventh Edition
Newsom/Turk/Kruckeberg, Cengage Advantage Books:
This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations, Eleventh Edition
Radio, Television, and Film
Albarran, Management of Electronic and Digital Media, Sixth Edition
Alten, Cengage Advantage Books: Audio Basics, First Edition
Alten, Audio in Media, Tenth Edition
Eastman/Ferguson, Media Programming: Strategies and Practices, Ninth Edition
Gross/Ward, Digital Moviemaking, Seventh Edition
Hausman/Messere/Benoit, Modern Radio and Audio Production: Programming
and Performance, Tenth Edition
Hilmes, Only Connect: A Cultural History of Broadcasting in the
United States, Fourth Edition
Mamer, Film Production Technique: Creating the Accomplished Image, Sixth Edition
Lewis, Essential Cinema: An Introduction to Film Analysis, First Edition
Osgood/Hinshaw, Cengage Advantage Books: Visual Storytelling: Videography
and Post Production in the Digital Age, Second Edition
Zettl, Sight Sound Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics, Eighth Edition
Zettl, Television Production Handbook, Twelfth Edition
Zettl, Video Basics, Seventh Edition
Research and Theory
Baran/Davis, Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future,
Seventh Edition
Sparks, Media Effects Research: A Basic Overview, Fifth Edition
Wimmer/Dominick, Mass Media Research: An Introduction, Tenth Edition
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Management of Electronic and
Digital Media
Sixth Edition
Alan B. Albarran
University of North Texas
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
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Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version.
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Management of Electronic and Digital Media,
Sixth Edition
Alan B. Albarran
Product Director: Monica Eckman
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Schowalter
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2015942187
ISBN: 978-1-305-07756-0
Cengage Learning
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Print Number: 01
Print Year: 2015
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This book is dedicated to the memory of
my teacher, mentor, and friend,
Dr. C. A. “Ace” Kellner
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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Contents
Preface xvii
Abbreviations and Acronyms
1
xxv
Managing Electronic and Digital Media
1
An Overview of Electronic and Digital Media in Society
Radio 5
3
AM Radio 5
FM Radio 6
HD Radio 7
Satellite Radio 7
Internet Radio 8
Television 8
Multichannel Video Services: Cable, Satellite, and Telcos
Telecommunications Industry 10
Digital Video Platforms 10
Social Media 11
Management in the Electronic and Digital Media 11
9
Levels of Management 11
Management Skills 13
Management Functions 15
Management Roles 19
Summary 20
Case Studies 21
References for Chapter 1 23
2
The Media Business Environment: Markets, Business
Models, Mergers, Alliances, and Partnerships 25
Electronic and Digital Media Markets
26
Defining the Market 26
Dual-Product Markets 26
Geographic Markets 27
vii
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii
Contents
Market Structure
28
Concentration in the Market 28
Product Differentiation 29
Barriers to Entry 29
Cost Structures 29
Vertical Integration 30
Types of Market Structure 30
Business Models 32
Forces Affecting Markets
33
Economic Conditions 33
Technological Forces 33
Regulatory Forces 34
Global Forces 35
Social Forces 35
Synergy 36
Alliances and Partnerships
36
What Is a Strategic Alliance? 37
SWOT Analysis 38
The Development of Mobile TV 39
Alliances to Develop and Market Content and Applications
Alliances for Newsgathering 39
Alliances to Expand Domestic and Global Markets 39
Alliances to Develop Social and Interactive TV 40
Mergers and Acquisitions 40
Factors Behind Mergers 41
39
Implications for Management 41
Summary 42
Case Studies 43
References for Chapter 2 45
3
Ethics of Management
47
What Is Ethics? 48
Ethical Decision Making in the Media Industries
Norms Used in Moral Decision Making 50
49
The Golden Mean 51
The Judeo-Christian Ethic 52
The Categorical Imperative 52
Utilitarianism 52
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Contents
Egalitarianism 53
Relativism 53
Social Responsibility Theory 54
Deontological and Teleological Ethics
ix
54
Ethical Codes and Mission Statements
54
Codes of Ethics 55
Mission Statements 55
Ethical Issues in Media Management
59
Serving the Market or the Marketplace
Controversies over Content 59
Ethics in News and Public Affairs 61
Ethics in Sales and Marketing 63
59
Implementing an Ethics Program 64
Summary 65
Case Studies 66
References for Chapter 3 69
4
Theories of Management
71
Management as a Process 71
Approaches to Management 72
Classical School of Management 72
Human Relations School of Management 75
Modern Approaches to Management 79
Management and the Media Industries
Summary 84
Case Studies 85
References for Chapter 4 87
5
Financial Management
84
89
What Is Financial Management? 90
Meeting Financial Goals 90
Implementing Financial Growth 91
Budgeting 92
Setting Priorities and Goals in Individual Departments
Capital Budgeting 93
Compiling the Budget 93
92
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x
Contents
Budgetary Flexibility 94
Forecasting 94
Monitoring Financial Performance
94
Balance Sheet 94
Income (P&L) Statement 98
Statement of Cash Flows 99
Other Financial Statements 101
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 101
Ratio Analysis 102
Break-Even Analysis 103
Depreciation and Amortization 106
Reporting Financial Performance 107
Summary 108
Case Studies 109
References for Chapter 5 113
6
Managing Personnel
115
Personnel Management
116
The Hiring Process 117
Interviewing 119
Orientation 121
Probationary Work Period 123
Performance Reviews 123
Promotion 125
Termination 126
Part-Time Employees 127
Interns 127
Working with Personnel 128
Legal Issues in Personnel Management
Equal Employment Opportunity Guidelines
Sexual Harassment 129
Other Labor Laws 131
Working with Unions 132
Structure, Communication, and Personnel
Summary 135
Case Studies 136
References for Chapter 6 139
128
129
134
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
7
xi
Audiences and Audience Research 141
Audience Research and Analysis
142
Demographic Research Data 142
Psychographic Research Data 143
Geodemographic Research 144
Geolocation Research 144
Big Data 144
Sources of Audience Research Data
145
Nielsen 145
Rentrak 147
comScore 147
Edison Research 147
National Research Services for Radio 148
Industry and Trade Associations 149
Consulting Firms 149
Internal Research Departments 150
Using Audience Data 150
Market Terminology 153
A Word Regarding Samples
154
Standard Error and Confidence Intervals
154
Ratings Accuracy 155
Social Media Analytics 155
Research Application 156
From Mass Media to Consumer Media 157
Summary 158
Case Studies 159
References for Chapter 7 162
8
Content: Strategy and Distribution
165
The Program Manager/Director 165
Radio and Audio Programming 167
Target Existing Audiences 168
Develop a Niche 168
Format Variables 168
Television and Video Programming
171
First-Run Syndication 172
Off-Network Syndication 173
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xii
Contents
Ad Hoc Networks 174
Original Programs on the Web and Digital Platforms
Local Broadcast Programming 175
Networks and Programming 175
Multichannel Programming 180
Management Issues in Programming
174
181
Intense Competition for Audiences 182
Demand for More Research 182
Brand Development and Brand Extension
Rising Costs of Programming 182
Regulatory Concerns 183
The Multiplatform Environment 183
182
Summary 184
Case Studies 185
References for Chapter 8 189
9
Marketing
191
The Four Ps of Marketing 192
Personnel in Electronic and Digital Media Marketing
Marketing Strategies 194
193
Segmentation 194
Positioning 194
Branding 195
Sales versus Marketing
196
Expanding Selling to Marketing 196
Understanding Clients and Their Needs
The General Sales Manager
Local Advertising 197
196
197
The Local Sales Staff: Account Executives
Role of the Local Sales Manager 200
Radio Revenue Rates 200
Television Revenue Rates 201
Cable Revenue Rates 202
National Advertising
198
203
Spot Advertising 203
National Sales Staff 204
Role of the Rep Firm 204
Working with the Rep Firm
205
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
xiii
Cooperative (Co-op) Advertising 206
Internet and Digital Advertising 206
Sales Terminology 208
Promotion as a Form of Marketing
Duties of the Promotion Manager
Types of Promotion 213
212
212
Evaluating Marketing Efforts 214
Summary 214
Case Studies 215
References for Chapter 9 218
10
News and News Management
The Importance of News
221
222
Localism 223
News as Content/Programming
224
Organization of a News Department
226
Staffing the News Department 227
Budgeting and the News Department 230
Issues in News Management
231
Erosion of the News Audience 232
Convergence Efforts 232
Negotiations with News Talent 232
Ratings and Sweeps 233
News Ethics 234
Race and Ethnicity Issues 235
Unions and Union Contracts 235
Summary 236
Case Studies 236
References for Chapter 10
11
239
Regulatory Influences on Media Management
Regulatory Influences: The Federal Government
241
241
The Executive Branch 242
The Legislative Branch 242
The Judicial Branch 242
Role of State and Local Law
243
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xiv
Contents
Role of the Federal Communications Commission
243
The FCC: A Brief History 243
The Contemporary FCC 245
FCC Regulatory Policies: What the FCC Does 247
The FCC and Broadcasting 247
The FCC and Programming Policies 251
The FCC and Cable Television 254
The FCC and Telecommunications Regulation 256
Other Federal Departments and Agencies
258
Department of Justice 258
Federal Trade Commission 259
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
Federal Aviation Administration 259
Informal Regulatory Forces
259
259
Consumer Groups 260
Self-Regulation 260
The Press 261
Summary 261
Case Studies 262
References for Chapter 11 264
12
Technology Influence on Media Management
267
Technology Trends 267
Social 268
Key Players in Social Media 269
Audience Use of Social Media 270
Advertising and Social Media …
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