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During our week two lecture we discuss how there are approximately 90,000 local governments in the United States. This includes city governments, county governments and special district (“single-purpose” governments like a Water District). Most of these governments have a few to hundreds of departments (sub units of the government). That’s a whole lot of governments (and a whole lot of jobs for our graduates who want to pursue careers in government after graduation, whoo hoo!)For your first writing assignment, you will get acquainted with a local government near where you live or work (i.e. City of El Cajon, Sweetwater Water District etc) or a department of a local government (i.e. City of San Diego Fire Department, City of La Mesa Library, City of National City Police Department, County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency Family Resource Center). You will research the city, agency or department using information from its official website (not a random Google search, please) in order to answer the prompts below.Then you will physically go to the outside of the administration building representing the city, agency or department that is the focus of your assignment and take a selfie to submit with your assignment. For example, if you choose to research the City of Chula Vista’s Fire Department for the assignment, you would take a photo of yourself in front of one of the City’s 10 Fire Stations OR the department’s headquarters at City Hall. If you chose to research the City of Lemon Grove, you would take a photo of yourself outside of City Hall.ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS:To complete the requirements of this assignment, you’ll submit the selfie along with a minimum two page(double-spaced) essay responding to the following prompts: Identification of the local government (or department of that local department) that you have researched for this assignment and its website and why you chose this local government or department;Based on your research, discuss the mission of the local government (or department of that local government), services provided and who is served (i.e. number of residents served by the City government); andConclude with a brief discussion applying one or more specific concepts from the first three class lectures/reading assignments to what you learned during your research.And…don’t forgot to include the photo either as a graphic on the assignment or separate attachment.EXTRA CREDIT:Feeling adventurous? With additional research and application of course concepts from week two and three, you can earn up to two extra credit points.Intergovernmental Relations: Identify and describe one or more specific and separate governments that this government or department collaborates with to provide services to the public. For instance, if you were to feature the San Diego County Sheriff’s Department, you could discuss how the department provides law enforcement services through a contractual basis to several cities including Lemon Grove, Santee, Imperial Beach, Del Mar etc. If you were featuring the City of La Mesa, you could discuss how the City had joined with the cities of El Cajon and Lemon Grove to form Heartland Fire and Rescue – a joint powers agreement for management/delivery of fire protection service. Public Private Partnerships: Identity a specific public/private partnership (PPP) that the government agency or department is involved with (i.e. if you analyzed a city government look to see if it contracts for waste management services. If you’re looking at a Fire Department, you’d research if it contracts with a private ambulance company).
pa301_mosaicamergovts_adminfednetworks_1_.ppt

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Mosaic of American Governments
Administration in the Federal Network
PA 301
Mosaic of American Governments
• The Mosaic of American Governments – for purposes of
this lecture – refers to the structural arrangements
adopted by the national (federal) government and
approximately 90,000 state and local government entities
to deliver legally mandated goods and services
• As stated by the author in the intro to chapter two, this
topic is important to understand because the way in which
government is organized is vital to how well it services
public purposes
Five Constitutional Bases of
Government Organizations
• Rule of Law
• “The Constitution shall be the supreme law of the
land”; no government official shall act outside the
scope of one’s legal authority
• Federalism
• A system of government where certain powers are
allocated to a national government, others to state
governments
Five Constitutional Bases of
Government Organizations (Cont’d)
• Separation of Powers
• Divides the powers of the national government into the
executive, legislative and judicial branches
• Guaranteed Rights and Liberties
• Governments may not take away one’s life, liberty or
property except by due process of law
• Government Accountability
• Sovereignty (power) is in the people; citizens are
afforded many opportunities to hold lawmakers
accountable
*Types of Subnational
Governments in US
• States (50)
• Counties (3,031)
• Municipalities (19,522)
• Strong Mayor/Council
• Council-Manager




Townships/Towns (16,364)
School Districts (13,051)
Special Purpose Local Govts. (Special Districts) (37,381)
Tribal Governments (556)
*2012 Data
Intergovernmental Relations
• Intergovernmental Relations: The ongoing
administrative, political and legal relationships
that exist among all levels of government within
the United States
• Intergovernmental Relations encompasses all the
interactions that establish and finance shared
policies and settle conflicts that arise along the
way
Intergovernmental Relations:
Competing Norms
• Localism
• The norm that service or regulation should be
based in as small of a jurisdiction as possible,
under the control of the people whom it affects
the most
• Pragmatism
• The norm that dictates that a needed service or
regulation should be provided in the most
effective manner possible
Intergovernmental Relations:
The “M” Word:
• Mandate: One level of government requiring a
subordinate level of government to offer – or
pay for – a program as a matter of law or as a
prerequisite to partial or full program funding
• Unfunded Mandate: Orders imposed by higher
levels of governments on low-levels without
providing the funds necessary for
implementation
Intergovernmental Relations:
The Other “M” Word…
…most contemporary federal-state and state-local
government relationships involve money
• Fiscal Federalism: The fiscal (financial)
relationships that exist between and among units
of government
• Grants-In-Aid
• Categorical Grants (formula or project grants)
• Block grants
Intergovernmental Relations:
Lecture Summary
• Public Administration in United States is
fragmented and decentralized – on purpose
• Public Administration is dependent upon the
coordination, cooperation and integration of
approximately 90,000 government entities to
provide public purposes – those goods and
services the public expects government to
provide

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