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and i have on the box below the power point that has all the lecture After watching the lecture video and the associated video links
this week, what stands out to you as important? What information here
was not new to you? What is a new piece of information that you did not
know before? What is one idea that you would like to learn more about? write please free to write in narrative (paragraph) format, with your main post being between 300-600 words
week_2_theories.pdf

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8/26/20
Chapter 2
1. What is practical about a theory?
2. Do childhood experiences affect the
adults they become?
3. Would you be a different person if you
grew up in another place or century?
4. Why do we need so many theories?
Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning
Theories
The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence
K athleen S tassen B erger | E leventh E dition
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Chapter Theories
What Theories Do (part 1)
Older grand theories
• Freudian
• Pavlovian
Theories generate
discoveries.
Theories offer
practical guidance.
Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning
Theories produce
hypotheses.
Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning
• Piagetian
Newer theories
• Sociocultural
• Evolutionary
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WHAT WILL YOU KNOW?
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What Theories Do (part 2)
Theories (part 1)
Developmental theory
• Systematic statement of principles and
generalizations
• Framework for understanding how and why
people change as they grow older
Freud’s psychoanalytic
theory
Constructed elaborate,
multifaceted theory
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Proposed human development
in first six years occurs in three
psychosexual stages
characterized by sexual
interest and pleasure arising
from body part
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Each stage includes its own
struggle; none appear after
puberty.
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Theories (part 2)
If Erikson had published his theory
at age 73 (when this photograph
was taken) instead of in his 40s,
would he still have described his
life as a series of crises?
Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning
• Described eight
developmental stages,
each characterized by a
challenging developmental
crisis
• Proposed five psychosocial
stages which build on
Freud’s theory, but added
three adult stages
• Emphasized family and
culture, not sexual urges
Behaviorism
Learning theory
• Focuses on observable behavior
• Describes the laws and processes by which behavior is
learned
Conditioning
• Proposes that learning takes place through processes
by which responses become linked to particular stimuli
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Grand Theories (part 1)
Psychoanalytic theory
Erik Erikson (1902–1994)
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Grand Theories (part 2)
Grand Theories (part 3)
Behaviorism
Classical (respondent)
conditioning
• American psychologist
• One of the earliest
proponents of behaviorism
and learning theory
• Focuses on behavior
• Suggests only what is
observed should be
examined
• Demonstrates that behaviors
can be learned by making an
association between an
environmental stimulus and a
naturally occurring stimulus
• Received the Nobel Prize in
1904 for his digestive
processes research
• Resulted in discovery of
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
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Pavlov (1849–1936)
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John Watson
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John Watson (1878–1958)
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Theories (part 3)
Grand Theories (part 4)
Behaviorism
Operant conditioning

Social learning theory
Refers to extension of
behaviorism that emphasizes
that other people influence
each person’s behavior
Proposes that reinforcement or
punishment may be used to either
increase or decrease the
probability that a behavior will
occur again in the future
Also called instrumental
conditioning
Proposes that even without
specific reinforcement, every
individual learns many things
through observation and
imitation of other people
(modeling)


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Agreed with Watson that
psychology should focus on the
scientific study of behavior
Was best known for experiments
with rats, pigeons, and his own
daughter
Skinner applied his knowledge to human
behavior. For his daughter, he designed a
glass-enclosed crib in which temperature,
humidity, and perceptual stimulation could
be controlled to make her time in the crib
enjoyable and educational.
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Skinner (1904–1990)
Involves sense of self-efficacy
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Grand Theories
(part 5)
Theories (part 4)
Cognitive theory
Proposes thoughts and
expectations profoundly affect
actions, attitudes, beliefs and
assumption
Focuses on changes in how
people think over time
Result
Classical
Conditioning
Learning occurs
through association.
Neutral stimulus becomes
conditioned response.
Operant
Conditioning
Learning occurs
through reinforcement
and punishment.
Weak or rare responses become
strong and frequent—or, with
punishment, unwanted
responses become extinct.
Social Learning
Learning occurs
through modeling
what others do.
Observed behaviors become
copied behaviors.
Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Would You Talk to This Man?
Children loved talking to Jean Piaget,
and he learned by listening carefully—
especially to their incorrect
explanations, which no one had paid
much attention to before.
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Piaget (part 1)
Piaget (part 2)
Piaget
• Used scientific observations to form the central
thesis of his theory and his stages of children’s
cognitive development
Cognitive theory
Assimilation
• Experiences are
interpreted to fit into, or
assimilate with, old ideas.
Sensorimotor


Preoperational
Concrete operational

Formal operational
• Old ideas are restructured
to include, or
accommodate.
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Cognitive equilibrium or
disequilibrium
• State of mental balance or
imbalance
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Accommodation
Stages of development
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He maintained that cognitive
development occurs in four major
age-related periods, or stages.
Intellectual advancement occurs
lifelong because humans seek
cognitive equilibrium
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Learning Process
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Type of Learning
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How to Think About Flowers
Cognitive Theories
(a)
A person’s stage of cognitive growth influences
how he or she thinks about everything,
including flowers.
Information processing theory
• Represents newer version of cognitive theory
• Compares human thinking processes, by
analogy, to computer analysis of data, including
sensory input, connections, stored memories,
and output
(b)
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Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning
(c)
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Can you identify the Piagetian stage at which
each person is thinking about flowers?
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Newer Cognitive
Theories
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Combining brain research and cognitive
insights leads to new understanding
of cognition.
Details of brain scans require interpretation from neurologists, but even the
novice can see that adults who have been diagnosed with ADHD (second line of
images) reacted differently in this experiment when they were required to push a
button only if certain letters appeared on a screen.
Copyright © 2018 by Macmillan Learning

Information processing
theory focuses on the
processes of thought—
that is, when, why, and
how neurons fire before
a response.
Neurons reach out to
other neurons, shown
here in an expansion
microscopy photo that
was impossible even a
decade ago.
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Piaget and Neuroscience
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INSIDE THE BRAIN:
Measuring Mental Activity
Newer Versions of Cognitive Theory
Contemporary neuroscientists
Are multicultural and multidisciplinary
Propose human development results from dynamic
interaction between developing person and
surrounding society
Some measurement techniques
EEG (electrocephalogram)
ERP (event-related potential)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
PET (positron emission tomography)
fNIRS (functional near infrared spectroscopy)
DTI (diffusion tensor imaging)
View culture as integral to development every day
through the social context
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Vygotsky (part 1)
Vygotsky (part 2)
Sociocultural theory
Zone of proximal
development


Proposes thoughts and human
development result from the
dynamic interaction between
developing persons and their
surrounding society
• Skills, knowledge, and
concepts that a learner is
close to acquiring but
cannot master without help
Focuses on culture as integral to a
person’s development
Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)
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Use electrodes, magnets, light, and computers to measure brain
activity
Study cognitive processes between input and output
Described interaction between
culture and education

Developed concepts of
apprenticeship in thinking and
guided participation
Process of joint
construction
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• New knowledge obtained
through mentoring
The intellectual excitement of the “zone” is
the origin of the joy that both instruction
and study can bring.
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Universals and Specifics
Evolutionary theory
• Integrates modern psychological principles and
evolutionary biology
• Suggests humans have two long-standing
biologically based drives: survival and
reproduction
• Proposes concept of selective adaptation
• Posits genetic variations are particularly
beneficial when a change of environment
benefits humanity as a whole
• Influences inclusion of
culture into contemporary
research
• Sheds new light on
cultural differences in
many areas, including
attachment, gender, and
ethnic prejudice
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Sociocultural
perspective
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Newer Theories
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Genetic Links
Selective Adaptation Illustrated
Selective adaptation
• Process by which living creatures (including people)
adjust to their environment
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• Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability
are selected, over the generations, to become more
prevalent.
• This enables humans to survive and multiply.
• This is probably true not only for biological traits but
also for traits that originate in the brain.
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Genetic variation among humans and inherited
flexibility
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What Theories Contribute
(part 1)
What Theories Contribute (part 2)
Psychoanalytic theories
Behaviorism
Cognitive theories
Eclectic approach
Sociocultural theories
Universal theories
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• Helps guard against bias and facilitates openmindedness to alternative explanations for the
complexity of human life
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Can you identify the contributions of each of the
above theories?
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• Held by most developmentalists
• Occurs when aspects of each of the various
theories of development are selectively applied,
rather than adhering exclusively to one theory
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