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Annotation Guidelines for Jonathan Swift’s “Modest Proposal”and the text needed is attached bellow Due Date: September 3, 2020When annotating a passage for analysis, determine the main purpose of the passage.Look primarily to these main components to help you:PART I: (5 points)Type the answers to the following questions 🙁 Length of each answer should be two to three sentences)Who is the audience for the essay?What is the larger context/cultural context for the text?What is the author’s main argument?What is the author’s purpose in writing this essay?PART II: (10 points) Zero Points for assignments completed using a pencilMark up the following directly on the hard copy of the texts. This assignment should be completed using a pen. You may use different color ink or same color. You must label the text in the margin. Or you could use the word review feature and complete it. (Turn in the annotated assignment as an attachment in Canvas by due date)Type of claim: cause, fact, value, policy (use any one specific color pen; for example, blue, to label the type of claim in the right margin).Type of support/Evidence: fact, opinion, reasoned judgment, inference, example (use a different color pen, for example, green, to label the type of evidence in the left margin).Label the rhetorical Strategies writer uses-description, definition, metaphor, symbol, allusion, analogy, etc.Appeals: Ethos, Logos, Pathos Summarize every new main claim you come across below the paragraph that contains a main claim.English 124 Annotation Assignment Rubric Excellent(15-20) –Identifies main ideas and underlines sentences with main ideas-Identifies and label appeals in every paragraph–Identifies and labels rhetorical strategies in every paragraph– Circles key words define–Identifies overall tone of essay–Types answers to part 1 and attaches Satisfactory (10-15) Partially –Identifies main ideas and underlines sentences with main ides-Identifies and label appeals in every paragraph–Identifies and labels rhetorical strategies in every paragraph– Circles key words define–Identifies overall tone of essay–Types answers to # 9 and attachesOr Skips #9 Unsatisfactory (0-10) Incomplete work—Only annotation or the answers to #9 are completedOr only some of the activities listed are completedOr only half of the text has been annotated

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Title: A Modest Proposal For preventing the children of poor people in Ireland, from being a
burden on their parents or country, and for making them beneficial to the publick – 1729
Author: Jonathan Swift
A Modest Proposal
For preventing the children of poor people in Ireland, from being a burden on their parents or
country, and for making them beneficial to the publick.
by Dr. Jonathan Swift
1. It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town, or travel in the
country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabbin-doors crowded with beggars of
the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags, and importuning every
passenger for an alms. These mothers, instead of being able to work for their honest
livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in stroling to beg sustenance for their helpless
infants who, as they grow up, either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native
country, to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes.
2. I think it is agreed by all parties, that this prodigious number of children in the arms, or on
the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their fathers, is in the present
deplorable state of the kingdom, a very great additional grievance; and therefore whoever
could find out a fair, cheap and easy method of making these children sound and useful
members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the publick, as to have his statue
set up for a preserver of the nation.
3. But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of
professed beggars: it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of
infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them, as
those who demand our charity in the streets.
4. As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years upon this important subject,
and maturely weighed the several schemes of our projectors, I have always found them
grossly mistaken in their computation. It is true, a child just dropt from its dam, may be
supported by her milk, for a solar year, with little other nourishment: at most not above the
value of two shillings, which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her
lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for
them in such a manner, as, instead of being a charge upon their parents, or the parish, or
wanting food and raiment for the rest of their lives, they shall, on the contrary, contribute
to the feeding, and partly to the clothing of many thousands.
5. There is likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary
abortions, and that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too
frequent among us, sacrificing the poor innocent babes, I doubt, more to avoid the expence
than the shame, which would move tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast.
6. The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of
these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple, whose wives are
breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couple, who are able to maintain
their own children, (although I apprehend there cannot be so many under the present
distresses of the kingdom) but this being granted, there will remain a hundred and seventy
thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand, for those women who miscarry, or
whose children die by accident or disease within the year. There only remain a hundred
and twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is,
How this number shall be reared and provided for? which, as I have already said, under the
present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For
we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; they neither build houses, (I mean
in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing till
they arrive at six years old; except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess
they learn the rudiments much earlier; during which time they can however be properly
looked upon only as probationers; as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the
county of Cavan, who protested to me, that he never knew above one or two instances
under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency
in that art.
7. I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl, before twelve years old, is no saleable
commodity, and even when they come to this age, they will not yield above three pounds,
or three pounds and half a crown at most, on the exchange; which cannot turn to account
either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriments and rags having been at least
four times that value.
8. I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to
the least objection.
9. I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a
young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and
wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it
will equally serve in a fricasee, or a ragoust.
10. I do therefore humbly offer it to publick consideration, that of the hundred and twenty
thousand children, already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof
only one fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle, or
swine, and my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a
circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore, one male will be sufficient to
serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in
sale to the persons of quality and fortune, through the kingdom, always advising the mother
to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump, and fat for a good
table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family
dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little
pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.
11. I have reckoned upon a medium, that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar
year, if tolerably nursed, encreaseth to 28 pounds.
12. I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as
they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.
13. Infant’s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March, and a little
before and after; for we are told by a grave author, an eminent French physician, that fish
being a prolifick dyet, there are more children born in Roman Catholick countries about
nine months after Lent, than at any other season; therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the
markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of Popish infants, is at least
three to one in this kingdom, and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by
lessening the number of Papists among us.
14. I have already computed the charge of nursing a beggar’s child (in which list I reckon all
cottagers, labourers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two shillings per annum,
rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass
of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of excellent nutritive meat,
when he hath only some particular friend, or his own family to dine with him. Thus the
squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants, the mother
will have eight shillings neat profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child.
15. Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the
skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots
for fine gentlemen.
16. As to our City of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose, in the most
convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I
rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot from the knife, as we
do roasting pigs.
17. A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was
lately pleased in discoursing on this matter, to offer a refinement upon my scheme. He said,
that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived
that the want of venison might be well supplied by the bodies of young lads and maidens,
not exceeding fourteen years of age, nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in
every county being now ready to starve for want of work and service: and these to be
disposed of by their parents if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due
deference to so excellent a friend, and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his
sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me from frequent
experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of our schoolboys, by
continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable, and to fatten them would not answer the
charge. Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission, be a loss to the
publick, because they soon would become breeders themselves: and besides, it is not
improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice, (although
indeed very unjustly) as a little bordering upon cruelty, which, I confess, hath always been
with me the strongest objection against any project, how well soever intended.
18. But in order to justify my friend, he confessed, that this expedient was put into his head by
the famous Psalmanaazor, a native of the island Formosa, who came from thence to
London, above twenty years ago, and in conversation told my friend, that in his country,
when any young person happened to be put to death, the executioner sold the carcass to
persons of quality, as a prime dainty; and that, in his time, the body of a plump girl of
fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to poison the Emperor, was sold to his imperial
majesty’s prime minister of state, and other great mandarins of the court in joints from the
gibbet, at four hundred crowns. Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made
of several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their fortunes,
cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at a playhouse and assemblies in foreign
fineries which they never will pay for, the kingdom would not be the worse.
19. Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor
people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed; and I have been desired to employ my thoughts
what course may be taken, to ease the nation of so grievous an incumbrance. But I am not
in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known, that they are every day
dying, and rotting, by cold and famine, and filth, and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably
expected. And as to the young labourers, they are now in almost as hopeful a condition.
They cannot get work, and consequently pine away from want of nourishment, to a degree,
that if at any time they are accidentally hired to common labour, they have not strength to
perform it, and thus the country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to
20. I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages
by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as of the highest
21. For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of Papists, with
whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation, as well as our most
dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom
to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good Protestants,
who have chosen rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay tithes against
their conscience to an episcopal curate.
22. Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by law
may be made liable to a distress, and help to pay their landlord’s rent, their corn and cattle
being already seized, and money a thing unknown.
23. Thirdly, Whereas the maintainance of a hundred thousand children, from two years old,
and upwards, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a piece per annum, the nation’s
stock will be thereby encreased fifty thousand pounds per annum, besides the profit of a
new dish, introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom, who have
any refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among our selves, the goods being
entirely of our own growth and manufacture.
24. Fourthly, The constant breeders, besides the gain of eight shillings sterling per annum by
the sale of their children, will be rid of the charge of maintaining them after the first year.
25. Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns, where the vintners will
certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to perfection; and
consequently have their houses frequented by all the fine gentlemen, who justly value
themselves upon their knowledge in good eating; and a skilful cook, who understands how
to oblige his guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please.
26. Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either
encouraged by rewards, or enforced by laws and penalties. It would encrease the care and
tenderness of mothers towards their children, when they were sure of a settlement for life
to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the publick, to their annual profit instead of
expence. We should soon see an honest emulation among the married women, which of
them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives,
during the time of their pregnancy, as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in
calf, or sows when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent
a practice) for fear of a miscarriage.
27. Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the addition of some thousand
carcasses in our exportation of barrel’d beef: the propagation of swine’s flesh, and
improvement in the art of making good bacon, so much wanted among us by the great
destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or
magnificence to a well grown, fat yearling child, which roasted whole will make a
considerable figure at a Lord Mayor’s feast, or any other publick entertainment. But this,
and many others, I omit, being studious of brevity.
28. Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant customers for infants
flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings, particularly at weddings and
christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand
carcasses; and the rest of the kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat
cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand.
29. I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it
should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby much lessened in the kingdom.
This I freely own, and was indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire
the reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for this one individual Kingdom of
Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or, I think, ever can be upon Earth. Therefore let
no man talk to me of other expedients: Of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound:
Of using neither clothes, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and
manufacture: Of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign
luxury: Of curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women:
Of introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temperance: Of learning to love our
country,wherein we differ even from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: Of
quitting our animosities and factions, nor acting any longer like the Jews, who were
murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: Of being a little cautious
not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: Of teaching landlords to have at least
one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry,
and skill into our shopkeepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our
native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure,
and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just dealing,
though often and earnestly invited to it.
30. Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, till he hath at
least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and sincere attempt to put
them into practice.
31. But, as to myself, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle,
visionary thoughts, and at length utterly despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon this
proposal, which, as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expence and
little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging
England. For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender
a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country,
which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it.
32. After all, I am not so violently bent upon my own opinion, as to reject any offer, proposed
by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before
something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and offering a
better, I desire the author or authors will be pleased maturely to consider two points. First,
As things now stand, how they will be able to find food and raiment for a hundred thousand
useless mouths and backs. And secondly, There being a round million of creatures in
humane figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common
stock, would leave them in debt two million of pounds sterling, adding those who are
beggars by profession, to the bulk of farmers, cottagers and labourers, with their wives and
children, who are beggars in effect; I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and
may perhaps be so bold to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these
mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for
food at a year old, in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual
scene of misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords, the
impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with
neither house nor clothes to cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most
inevitable prospect of intailing the like, or greater miseries, upon their breed for ever.
33. I profess in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in
endeavouring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the publick
good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and
giving some pleasure to t …
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